VOA慢速英语(翻译+字幕+讲解):DNA帮助学者了解《死海古卷》
日期:2020-06-11 15:54

(单词翻译:单击)

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听力文本

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DNA Helps Scholars Understand Dead Sea Scrolls
An international team of scientists has successfully decoded ancient DNA from animal skin on which some of the Dead Sea Scrolls were written.
The first of the 2000 year old religious documents were found in 1947 in a cave near Qumran, about 20 kilometers east of Jerusalem. Scientists since have gathered more than 25,000 pieces of writing on skin and ancient paper in the caves and other sites in the Judean Desert.
The University of Tel Aviv, the Israeli government and experts from Uppsala University in Sweden and Weill Cornell Medicine in New York City carried out DNA tests over seven years. They identified the kind of animal skins used for the documents. The finding will help experts to establish real scrolls from fakes.
\Many experts believe the scrolls were made by a small Jewish group called the Essenes. The Essenes had separated from the more traditional Jewish religion and were very secretive.
However, other experts argue that several people from different groups wrote the Dead Sea Scrolls. Those experts believe the scrolls were gathered together and put in the cave to keep them safe during a time of conflict.
The DNA tests show that the animal skin used for the writings was mainly from sheep common to the desert area. But, there were also some cow skin documents. The scientists say this suggests some documents may have been created in a city like Jerusalem, where cow raising was more common. Jews built a major religious center in the then Roman-ruled city around 2,500 years ago.
"The biological material of which the scrolls are made, is as telling and as informative as the content of the text," said researcher Noam Mizrahi. He is a professor of Bible studies at Tel Aviv University.
Study at the DNA laboratory in Uppsala showed the two versions of the document called the Book of Jeremiah were on cow skin. The scientists say the finding shows that these two documents were brought to Qumran from outside. They say the different versions also suggest that the understanding of Jewish religious writings differed.
Mizrahi said the Jewish community during the Second Temple appears to have been more diverse in religious understanding than researchers once thought.
The team of scientists tested extremely small pieces, even dust, of the scrolls. They say the same process could be used in the future to identify fake scrolls, like those found at The Museum of the Bible in Washington. Museum officials removed the documents in 2018, after discovering they were false.
I'm Susan Shand.

重点解析

1.successfully 成功地

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The Vatican successfully mediated in a territorial dispute between Argentina and Chile in 1984
梵蒂冈成功地调解了1984年阿根廷与智利之间的领土争端Lb+RT]gNZ9,DX=QS(

2.decoded 破译;译解

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The secret documents were intercepted and decoded.
机密文件遭截获并被破译8vZm(xb4S1icQ#o

3.ancient 古代的

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The Dunhuang frescoes are gems of ancient Chinese art.
敦煌壁画是我国古代艺术中的瑰宝B;ASKg~JUDFqct^j

4.religious 宗教的

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He deplored religious bigotry.
他强烈谴责了宗教偏执LGN,RQQS)#oT8(a5p#

5.Those experts believe the scrolls were gathered together and put in the cave to keep them safe during a time of conflict.

keep safe 保证安全

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Guideway inspection is very important to keep safe in the running of high speed train.
轨道梁检测是高速列车安全运行的重要保证FJeg4UGf4rz#+=x]
The embassy has warned us to refrain from going outdoors as much as possible and to keep safe.
大使馆提醒我们要尽量减少外出,注意安全4Il+rKMzyXEXG0j7

6.Those experts believe the scrolls were gathered together and put in the cave to keep them safe during a time of conflict.

gather together 聚集在一起

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I feel great joy whenever we gather together.
无论何时我们聚在一起,我都觉得非常快乐z0,|p3oY^hUi0
We plan to gather together this weekend.
我们计划这周末聚一聚mRIg.9@zHG+k4

参考译文

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DNA帮助学者了解《死海古卷》
一个国际科学考察小组成功破译了制作《死海古卷》的动物皮革上的古代DNAE0r-jp[Ire
这个有2000年历史的首批宗教手稿是1947年在耶路撒冷以东约20公里的昆兰附近的山洞里发现的dv|wFkSc@(c]R。自那以后,科学家们在犹甸沙漠的洞穴和其他地点收集了超过2.5万块写在皮革和古代纸质上的手稿碎片ydETgHdq(9Je,8Gd
特拉维夫大学、以色列政府、瑞典乌普萨拉大学和纽约市威尔康奈尔医学院的专家们历时7年进行了DNA测试TJr65LYhtNulk=。他们鉴别出了制作手稿的兽皮种类yAsP,G=*PE2NMH!|h。这一发现将有助于专家从赝品中鉴定真迹onu)3MjP|E)_e
许多专家认为,这些卷轴是由一个叫艾赛尼派这个犹太教小团体制作的sG+r4(eStgm=X。艾赛尼派已经脱离了更传统的犹太教,并且非常神秘_=ugjY7lrq

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DNA帮助学者了解《死海古卷》.jpeg
然而,其他专家认为《死海古卷》的作者来自不同的群体n%~f.5IG;)J^4iejEa;。这些专家认为,这些卷轴被收集在一起,放在洞穴中保持是为了在冲突时期保护稿件的安全3+_jdRqy,QpmB6B
DNA测试的结果表明,用于书写的动物皮革主要取自沙漠地区常见的绵羊的皮革a.|8)G++Y8djib。不过,也有一些是牛皮手稿l5VFht^QsB=O_26sb6。科学家们表示,这表明一些手稿可能是在耶路撒冷这样的城市创造出来的,那里养牛的现象更为普遍j-^c*Kk1#CcLX。大约2500年前,犹太人在当时罗马统治下的城市建立了一个主要的宗教中心niyQ46,F1Mx3
研究人员诺姆·米兹拉希说:“制作这些卷轴的生物材料和手稿内容一样具有说服力和信息量~eX7xS]JGB#HlmT*1。”他是特拉维夫大学研究圣经的教授aio~mtY@urgx.;LX4.v
在乌普萨拉的DNA实验室进行的研究表明,被称为《耶利米书》的两个版本的手稿用的是牛皮J]wtyRP9EP;O(mvbQa+1。科学家们表示,这一发现表明,这两份文件是从外部带入昆兰的0xB7.e0,K5HBA[[。他们指出,不同的版本也表明对犹太教手稿的理解存在差异G,Mb|h1jMb)
米兹拉希表示,在第二圣殿时期,犹太人对宗教理解的多样化似乎超出研究人员的推测5[eenPkn#umtz%^)V
科学家们测试了极其微小的古卷碎片,甚至灰尘;hVJtS!t]tF~7KQkY。他们表示,同样的过程将来也可以用来鉴别赝品碎片,比如在华盛顿的圣经博物馆发现的那些[.iTuE4#o)S1LQhngL=;。在发现这些文件是赝品后,博物馆官员于2018年撤下了这些手稿&rANx1kSYfIYxi9_l]hb
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译文为可可英语翻译,未经授权请勿转载!

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