Can Trump Send Troops to End Violent Protests?
On Monday, the president of the United States suggested he would use federal troops to end unrest across the country.
The unrest started over a week ago after the killing of George Floyd, a black man. He died a short time after he was detained by police in Minneapolis, Minnesota.
People in Minneapolis and other U.S. cities have been protesting Floyd's death. Some of the protests were peaceful, but others were not. Demonstrators attacked businesses, set fire to buildings, and burned cars.
Speaking from the White House, President Donald Trump proposed using military troops to stop the violence. He said, "If a city or state refuses to take the actions that are necessary to defend the life and property of their residents, then I will deploy the United States military and quickly solve the problem for them."
Several state governors quickly rejected Trump's proposal. The governor of Oregon, Kate Brown, said, "You don't defuse violence by putting soldiers on the streets." In Illinois, Governor J.B. Pritzker said he does not believe the federal government can send troops into his state. And New York's governor, Andrew Cuomo, added, "I say thank you but no thank you."
All three governors are members of the Democratic Party. Trump belongs to the Republican Party.
To deploy military troops, the president would need to invoke legislation known as the Insurrection Act.
What is the Insurrection Act?
Under the U.S. Constitution, governors generally have the power to maintain order within state borders. The constitution bars the armed forces from law enforcement within the country.
The Insurrection Act of 1807, however, gives the president power to send troops to the states "in all cases of insurrection, or obstruction to the laws." The law has since been amended several times.
In a 2006 report, the U.S. Congressional Research Service said the president is required to have approval from a state's governor or legislature to send in federal troops. But the report also noted that "the President may issue an executive order to send in troops."
Presidents have invoked the Insurrection Act several times in U.S. history.
In 1957, President Dwight Eisenhower approved an executive order to put the Arkansas National Guard under the U.S. military. As part of the order, he sent 1,000 Army troops to Little Rock, Arkansas. The move, over the objection of the state's governor, was to protect black students at an all-white high school.
The Congressional Research Service said the use of the Insurrection Act "has become exceedingly rare" since the end of civil rights protests in the 1960s.
The act was last used in 1992. That was the year when racial protests in Los Angeles turned violent. The unrest started when a court found four police officers – all of them white -- not guilty in the beating of a black man, Rodney King.
Thaddeus Hoffmeister is a law professor at the University of Dayton. He told the Reuters news agency that when the Insurrection Act was invoked in the past, presidents and governors have usually agreed on the need for troops.
In 2005, then President George W. Bush decided not to use the act to send troops to Louisiana after flooding resulting from Hurricane Katrina. The state's then-governor opposed the move.
Hoffmeister said he did not think invoking the Insurrection Act was needed now because governors can take action through their criminal justice systems.
I'm John Russell.
Thomas will be sworn in today as a justice on the Supreme Court.
Doug was found guilty of criminal assault and sentenced to six months in jail.
Clare's close resemblance to his elder sister invoked a deep dislike in him.
Longstanding poverty has been exacerbated by racial divisions.
5.Under the U.S. Constitution, governors generally have the power to maintain order within state borders.
have the power to 有权利做某事
Human societies have the power to solve the problems confronting them.
Select committees have the power to subpoena witnesses.
6.Hoffmeister said he did not think invoking the Insurrection Act was needed now because governors can take action through their criminal justice systems.
take action 采取措施
I knew I needed to take action.
It is time for us to take action.
这次动乱的导火索是一周前的黑人男子乔治·弗洛伊德被杀事件 。他在明尼苏达州明尼阿波利斯被警察拘捕后不久死亡 。
明尼阿波利斯以及美国其它城市的民众一直在为弗洛伊德死亡进行抗议 。有些抗议是和平进行的，有些却不是 。示威者攻击门店，在建筑物内纵火以及烧毁汽车 。
特朗普总统在白宫发表讲话时提出，将动用军队制止暴力活动 。他说：“如果一个城市或州拒绝采取必要行动捍卫当地居民的生命和财产，那么我将部署军队，为他们迅速解决问题 。”
有几位州长当下就拒绝了特朗普的提议 。俄勒冈州州长凯特·布朗表示：“在街上部署军队并不会减轻暴力活动 。”伊利诺伊州州长J.B. 普里兹克表示，他认为，联邦政府没有权利派军进入他管辖的州 。纽约州州长安德鲁·库莫也表示：“谢谢，心领了 。”
这三位州长都是民主党人 。而特朗普属于共和党 。
根据美国宪法，州长通常有权在本州境内维持秩序 。宪法禁止武装部队在国内执法 。
然而，1807年的《暴动法案》赋予总统“在暴动或者法律受到阻挠的情况下”向各州派兵的权力 。此后，该法案经过了多次修订 。
美国国会研究处在2006年的一份报告中表示，总统必须获得州长或议会批准才能派遣联邦军队 。但是该报告也指出，“总统可发布行政命令来派遣军队 。”
1957年，艾森豪威尔总统通过了一项行政命令，将阿肯色国民警卫队置于美国军队的领导之下 。作为该行政令的一部分，他向阿肯色州的小石头城派遣了1000名陆军士兵 。此举旨在保护一所白人高中的黑人学生，尽管该州州长一直反对 。
上一次使用该法案是在1992年 。当时，洛杉矶的种族抗议行为演变成了暴力活动 。这次暴乱起因是法院判决殴打黑人罗德尼·金（Rodney King）的四名白人警员无罪释放 。
赛迪斯·霍夫梅斯特（Thaddeus Hoffmeister）是代顿大学的法学教授 。他告诉路透社，以往援引《暴动法案》时，时任总统和州长通常在派兵一事上达成一致 。
2005年，时任美国总统的布什决定在卡特里娜飓风造成洪水泛滥后，在不使用该法案的前提下派军前往路易斯安娜 。该州时任州长对此表示反对 。