EU Criticizes Iran Over Nuclear Violations
Britain, France and Germany are increasing pressure on Iran to end its violations of an international nuclear deal.
The Europeans say they want to settle differences through negotiations. But they admit the process could lead to a return of United Nations sanctions against Iran.
The European Union (EU) members and Iran signed the nuclear agreement in 2015. Also signing were China, Russia and the United States.
Britain, France and Germany wrote a letter to the EU's foreign policy chief. The letter stated that they had no choice but to use the deal's "dispute mechanism" because of Iranian violations of the agreement.
The three said they rejected Iran's argument that Iran was justified to violate the deal because the United States withdrew from the agreement in 2018.
"We have therefore been left with no choice, given Iran's actions, but to register today our concerns that Iran is not meeting its commitments," the EU members said in a statement.
Iran's government reacts
Hours later, Iran's Foreign Ministry warned of a "serious and strong" reaction to the European move.
However, a foreign ministry spokesman official said Iran was "fully ready to answer any good will and constructive effort" that keeps the nuclear deal in place. Iran's official IRNA news agency reported his comments.
EU foreign policy leader Josep Borrell said the pressure from Europe does not mean Iran will face new international sanctions.
The aim of the move by France, Germany and Britain is "to return (Iran) to full compliance...of this agreement, he said.
The three countries said that they want to arrive at a solution using "diplomatic dialogue" and made no threat of sanctions in their statement.
They also tried to distance themselves from the sanctions declared by the United States. U.S. officials have said those measures are part of a "pressure" campaign against Iran.
"Our three countries are not joining a campaign to (put) maximum pressure against Iran," the Europeans said. "Our hope is to bring Iran back into full compliance with its commitments."
The nuclear deal's dispute resolution mechanism
The 2015 nuclear deal is known as the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, also known as JCPOA. It seeks to prevent Iran from making a nuclear weapon by setting limits on its nuclear program in exchange for economic actions, such as easing sanctions. Iran's government has said it does not want a nuclear weapon.
Under its dispute resolution mechanism, countries have 30 days to settle their dispute; however, the time limit can be extended. If the problem cannot be solved, the issue could be brought to the United Nations Security Council. The council's members could decide to re-establish the sanctions that had been removed under the terms of the deal.
U.S. President Donald Trump pulled the U.S. government out of the nuclear agreement in May 2018. He said the deal should be re-negotiated because it did not set limitations on Iran's ballistic missile program or its involvement in conflicts in other countries. Since then he has put back American sanctions, which have hurt Iran's economy.
To answer the U.S. decision, Iran has slowly pulled back from the agreement. Iran wants to pressure the other countries involved to provide economic incentives to answer the American sanctions.
China and Russia had been against using the dispute mechanism. However, German Foreign Minister Heiko Maas said in a statement that the three European countries "could no longer leave the growing Iranian violations of the nuclear agreement unanswered."
"Our goal is clear: we want to...come to a diplomatic solution within the agreement," Maas said.
With the growing worries that the deal cannot be saved, British Prime Minister Boris Johnson is suggesting the agreement could be somehow re-negotiated to answer some of Trump's worries.
"Let's work together to replace the JCPOA with the Trump deal," he told the BBC.
I'm Dorothy Gundy.
And I'm Susan Shand.
1.nuclear deal 核协议
They are all against the nuclear deal with Iran.
2.foreign policy 外交政策
They have revamped their foreign policy.
3.work together 共同努力
We have not yet learned to work together.
4.nuclear weapon 核武器
We have conducted a new nuclear weapon test successfully.
5."Our hope is to bring Iran back into full compliance with its commitments."
bring back 恢复
The House of Commons is to debate once again whether to bring back the death penalty.
Talking about it brought it all back.
6.It seeks to prevent Iran from making a nuclear weapon by setting limits on its nuclear program in exchange for economic actions, such as easing sanctions.
in exchange for 换取
The trade unions bargained away their rights in exchange for a small pay rise.
I will teach you Chinese in exchange for your teaching me English.
这些欧洲国家表示，他们希望通过谈判解决分歧 。但他们承认，这一过程可能导致联合国重新对伊朗实施制裁 。
欧盟成员国和伊朗在2015年签署了核协议 。中国、俄罗斯和美国也签署了该协议 。
英国、法国和德国给欧盟外交政策负责人写了一封信 。信中称，由于伊朗违反核协议，他们别无选择，只能启动该协议的“争端解决机制” 。
然而，伊朗外交部发言人表示，伊朗“完全准备好回应任何善意和建设性努力”，以保证核协议的实施 。伊朗官媒伊斯兰共和国通讯社(IRNA)报道了这一言论 。
欧盟外交政策领导人约瑟·博雷尔(Josep Borrell)表示，来自欧洲的压力并不意味着伊朗将面临新的国际制裁 。
他们还试图与美国宣布的制裁撇清关系 。美国官员称，这些制裁措施是针对伊朗的“施压”活动的一部分 。
这三个国家表示，“我们不会加入对伊朗施加最大压力的行动中” 。“我们希望让伊朗完全遵守承诺 。”
2015年达成的核协议被称为联合全面行动计划（JCPOA） 。该协议试图通过限制伊朗的核计划来阻止其发展核武器，以换取经济上的行动，比如放松制裁 。伊朗政府曾表示，不想拥有核武器 。
根据争端解决机制，各国有30天的时间来解决争端；但是，时间限制可以延长 。如果这个问题无法解决，可将其提交给联合国安全理事会 。安理会成员可以决定重新实施根据协议条款取消的制裁 。
2018年5月，美国总统特朗普宣布美国政府退出核协议 。他说，应该就核协议重新谈判，因为其没有限制伊朗的弹道导弹计划，也没有限制伊朗卷入其他国家的冲突 。从那以后，他又恢复了美国对伊朗的制裁，这些制裁损害了伊朗的经济 。
为了回应美国的决定，伊朗开始逐步违反协议规定 。伊朗希望向其他相关国家施压，要求它们提供经济激励，以抵消美国的制裁 。
中国和俄罗斯一直反对启动争端解决机制 。然而，德国外长海科·马斯(Heiko Maas)在一份声明中表示，三个欧洲国家“不能再让伊朗不断违反核协议的行为得不到回应” 。