Shipwrecks Part of New US Marine Sanctuary
Remains of more than 200 wooden ships lie at the bottom of Mallows Bay near Nanjemoy in the state of Maryland.
The oldest ships sank there in the 1700s; the most recent ones are from the 20th century. They and the waters around them form the newest national marine sanctuary in the United States. It is said to be the first sanctuary to protect not only sea creatures, but also partially covered shipwrecks. Their skeletal remains rise up in the air, looking like spirits rising out of the Potomac River.
"When the tide goes out, the ships come up, and so they've been called the ghost fleet," explains Joel Dunn, head of the Chesapeake Conservancy environmental group.
The new marine sanctuary is about 60 kilometers south of Washington, D.C. From along the coast, one can see part of a rusty ferryboat rising out of the water. But the best way to see the shipwrecks is probably by kayak.
The stars of the show, however, are 100 American cargo ships. They were built about one hundred years ago.
Dunn said, "These large wooden steam ships were built for a variety of purposes, including shipping overseas equipment to Europe during World War I. The only problem was that most of them were finished after the war, so they were brought to Mallows Bay and sold to a salvage company."
A few years after the war ended in 1918, workers removed metal from the ships. What remained was broken down, burned and sunk in the Potomac River.
Today, kayakers test their skill by boating among the wooden pieces of the ships. Some have large iron nails stuck in the wood.
The area serves as a manmade wildlife sanctuary for fish, beavers and birds like bald eagles and ospreys. Plant life is also growing around the wood.
"It's tremendous for the environment because they're actually cleaning the water, providing habitat, and helping with climate change," says Susan Langley, an underwater archeologist.
The slowly rotting wood in the water does not harm the environment.
"Because it's underwater it doesn't receive as much oxygen, and so the decay is a lot slower," Dunn explains. "There's also salt water which further reduces the decay."
The underwater sanctuary has the largest number of shipwrecks in the Americas. It also holds the world's biggest collection of World War I ships.
Langley says, "This is the only place where you can see the size of these vessels and the cross-section of different designs...It is like one big museum."
I'm Jonathan Evans.
1.wooden ships 木船
Centuries ago wooden ships often used straw as dunnage to prevent moisture from ruining cargo.
2.break down 分解；发生故障
The report breaks down the results region by region
3.rise up 升起
He incited them to rise up against their officers.
4.sea creatures 海洋生物
I've mainly searched for fossils and deep sea creatures.
5.Remains of more than 200 wooden ships lie at the bottom of Mallows Bay near Nanjemoy in the state of Maryland.
at the bottom of 在...底部
She lay at the bottom of the stairs, whimpering in pain
The honey runs out of a tap at the bottom of the drum.
6.It is said to be the first sanctuary to protect not only sea creatures, but also partially covered shipwrecks.
It is said 据说
It is said she is quite sure of success.
It is said that all ships coming from abroad should be performed quarantine.
最古老的船只是在18世纪在那里沉没；最新沉没的船只是在20世纪 。这些沉船和周遭的水域组成了美国最新的国家海洋保护区 。据说，这是首个不仅保护海洋生物，而且部分覆盖了沉船遗址的保护区 。他们的残骸漂浮上来，看似幽灵从波多马克河中升起 。
新海洋保护区位于华盛顿特区以南约60公里处，从海岸处可以看到一艘锈迹斑斑的渡船部分露出水面 。但是观赏沉船的最佳方式可能是搭乘皮艇 。
然而，这些“参展明星”是100艘美国货船 。它们是大约一百年前建造的 。
邓恩说:“这些大型木质蒸汽船的建造目的各不相同，包括在一战期间向欧洲运输海外装备 。唯一的问题是，这些船只大部分在战后被弃用，所以它们被带到锦葵湾，卖给了一家打捞公司 。”
1918年战争结束几年后，工人们将船上的金属拆卸掉 。剩下的船体被分解，烧毁，沉入波多马克河 。
今天，皮划艇选手们在木船上划船来测试他们的技术 。有些人把大铁钉钉在木船上 。
该地区是一片人造野生动物保护区，供鱼类、海狸和秃鹰、鱼鹰等鸟类栖息 。木船周围也生长着植物 。
邓恩解释称：“因为它位于水下，所以吸收的氧气少，所以腐烂速度要慢得多 。”“水中盐分也可以进一步减缓腐烂速度 。”
这个水下保护区拥有美洲最多的沉船 。这里还收藏着世界上最大的一战船只 。