Cigarette Warnings Could Be Bigger With Color Images
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has proposed a rule to require new health warnings on tobacco products. The proposed warnings would appear on individual cigarette packages and in advertising.
Cigarette packs would have realistic color pictures showing some of the lesser-known, but serious health risks of smoking. They include a smoker's increased risk of developing conditions such as diabetes as well as lung cancer.
The Food and Drug Administration, also called FDA, is the federal agency responsible for protecting the health of people in the United States.
Not only do the proposed warnings contain graphic images, the written information would also be easier to see. In a statement, FDA officials said the agency did research and found that many people did not read its small text-only warnings.
The statement described the proposed rule as the "most significant change to cigarette labels in more than 35 years."
The proposal would add 13 new health warnings.
Doctor Ned Sharpless is a cancer specialist and the head of the FDA. In a statement, Sharpless noted that "tobacco use is still the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the U.S." He said it "kills more people each year than alcohol, HIV, car accidents, illegal drugs, murders and suicides combined."
Sharpless added that the FDA remains "committed to educating the public, especially America's youth, about the dangers associated with using cigarettes and other tobacco products."
The agency said that "over 16 million Americans alive today live with disease caused by cigarette smoking." It added that "tobacco use also costs more than $300 billion a year in direct health care costs and lost productivity."
First Amendment court battle
This is not the first time FDA officials have tried to add graphic images to tobacco warnings. In 2011, the agency proposed similar warnings. But cigarette companies took legal action to stop them. The companies claimed the graphic warnings violated their constitutional right of freedom of speech. In 2012, tobacco companies won in court.
Kaelan Hollon, is a spokesperson for tobacco company Reynolds American Incorporated. She said that Reynolds is currently studying the FDA's latest proposal.
The Reuters news agency reports that following the 2012 ruling, several health groups brought their own case to court. A "judge issued an order in March 2019 directing the agency to publish a proposed rule by August  and issue a final rule in March 2020."
The current proposal is open to public comment until October 15.
Last month, the World Health Organization expressed its support for the use of graphic images in tobacco warnings.
Studies in Brazil, Canada, Singapore and Thailand, the WHO said, "consistently show that pictorial warnings significantly increase people's awareness of the harms from tobacco use."
In the same statement, the WHO called tobacco use an "epidemic" and "one of the biggest public health threats the world has ever faced."
The statement also provided the following information:
Tobacco kills up to half of its users.
Around the world, tobacco kills more than 8 million people each year. Around 1.2 million of those deaths are non-smokers who breathe in second-hand smoke.
Around 80% of the world's 1.1 billion smokers live in low- and middle-income countries.
I'm Anna Matteo.
1.health risk 健康风险
As a major health risk hepatitis is second only to tobacco.
2.public comment 公众意见；公共评论
Neither side made any public comment Monday on the talks.
3.lung cancer 肺癌
He almost died due to lung cancer.
4.as well as 和...一样
They have invited you as well as me.
5.The Reuters news agency reports that following the 2012 ruling, several health groups brought their own case to court.
brought case to court 向法院提起诉讼
We have brought the case to the court to retrieve the payment through legal channels.
If the case is brought to the court, it is up to the judge to decide whether it is reasonable or not.
6.A "judge issued an order in March 2019 directing the agency to publish a proposed rule by August  and issue a final rule in March 2020."
issued an order 发布命令
The union issued an order instructing its members not to work overtime.
The general issued an order to capture the hill to all personnel.
美国食品和药物管理局(FDA)提出一项规定，要求在烟草产品上添加新的健康警告 。该建议的警告将出现在单独的香烟包装和广告上 。
香烟包装上应该有形象的彩色图片，展示一些不太为人所知，但却严重的吸烟健康风险 。其中包括吸烟者患糖尿病和肺癌等疾病的风险增加 。
该建议警告不仅涉及图形图像，还要求文字信息更加显眼 。FDA官员在一份声明中指出，该机构通过研究发现，很多人没有看到不起眼的文字警告 。
医生内德·夏普莱斯（Ned Sharpless）是一名癌症专家，也是FDA的负责人 。夏普莱斯在一份声明中指出，“在美国，吸烟仍然是可预防疾病和死亡的主要原因 。”他说，每年死于吸烟的人比死于喝酒、艾滋病、车祸、非法毒品、谋杀和自杀的人加起来还多 。
该机构表示，“如今活着的1600多万美国人患有由吸烟引起的疾病 。”该机构还称，“吸烟每年还造成3000多亿美元的直接医疗费用和生产力损失 。”
这并不是FDA官员首次尝试在烟草警告中添加图像 。2011年，该机构提出了类似的警告 。但是烟草公司为了阻止这一行动发起了诉讼 。这些公司声称，这些图形式警告侵犯了宪法规定的言论自由权利 。2012年，烟草公司在法庭上胜诉 。
卡兰·霍伦（Kaelan Hollon）是烟草公司雷诺兹的发言人 。她说，雷诺兹目前正在研究FDA的最新提案 。
路透社报道，在2012年的裁决后，几家健康组织将自己的案件提交到法庭 。“法官在2019年3月发布命令，指示该机构在2019年8月前公布一项拟议规则，并在2020年3月发布最终规则 。”
全世界每年因烟草死亡的人数有800多万 。其中大约120万人是吸二手烟的非吸烟者 。