Scientists Set Doomsday Clock to Two Minutes to Midnight
Atomic scientists say the world is closer to complete destruction than at any time since the Cold War. The reasons include a renewed nuclear arms race, man-made climate change and state-supported disinformation campaigns.
The scientists released the 2019 Doomsday Clock statement this week. They set the clock at two minutes to midnight – the same time as in 2018. They call the current international situation a "new abnormal."
What is the Doomsday Clock?
The Doomsday Clock was created in 1947 by scientists who helped develop the first atomic weapons for the United States. It is recognized as a sign of how close the world is to complete self-destruction. The clock was originally set at seven minutes to midnight.
Then, in 1953, the clock was set at two minutes to midnight. Scientists moved up the time in answer to the development of hydrogen bombs in the U.S. and the former Soviet Union.
Later, in 1991, the clock was set to 17 minutes to midnight to celebrate the signing of arms reduction between the two superpowers.
Commenting on this year's setting, the scientists said threats from nuclear weapons had sharply increased. They noted the American withdrawal from the Iran nuclear deal and the U.S. plan to withdraw from the Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces Treaty, INF. The scientists also raised concerns about the unresolved nuclear situation in North Korea and programs of "nuclear modernization" in many nations, especially Russia.
On climate change, the scientists called attention to rising rates of greenhouse gases released in the past two years. The increase came as major oil-producing countries such the U.S., Russia, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait ignored scientific reports on the dangerous impact of greenhouse gases.
The scientists argued that threats to humanity – nuclear and climate change – worsened with disinformation from political leaders around the world. They said nationalist leaders and their supporters lied in many ways, but especially on social media. The leaders did not care they were lying, said the scientists, but insisted "that their lies were truth, and the truth ‘fake news.'"
To turn back the clock, the group called for several actions to make the world safer. Those include extending nuclear arms talks between the U.S. and Russia, adopting measures to prevent military events along the borders of NATO, demanding action to deal with climate change and discouraging the use of disinformation to decrease public trust.
I'm Kelly Jean Kelly.
1.complete destruction 彻底毁灭
This is the complete destruction of children, childhood behavior.
2.turn back 阻挡；翻回
They were very nearly forced to turn back.
3.deal with 处理；应付
He's a hard man to deal with.
4.climate change 气候变化
Carbon emissions exacerbate the global climate change problem.
5.Scientists moved up the time in answer to the development of hydrogen bombs in the U.S. and the former Soviet Union.
in answer to 回应
I don't quite know what to say in answer to your question.
She wrote to Roosevelt's secretary in answer to his letter of the day before.
6.They said nationalist leaders and their supporters lied in many ways, but especially on social media.
in many ways 在许多方面
In many ways, our society actively promotes alcoholism.
In many ways, it was a very modern school for its time.
“原子科学家公报”称，世界比冷战以来的任何时候都更接近彻底毁灭 。原因包括新一轮的核军备竞赛、人为造成的气候变化以及政府支持的虚假宣传活动 。
本周，“原子科学家公报”发布了2019年世界末日时钟声明 。他们将时钟调至午夜前两分钟——与2018年的时间相同 。他们称，当前的国际形势处于“新的异常事态中” 。
世界末日时钟是1947年帮助美国研制第一批原子武器的科学家们创造的 。该时钟被认为是世界离自我毁灭程度的标志 。最初，末日时钟的时间定在午夜前7分钟 。
1953年，末日时钟被调到午夜前两分钟 。科学家们提前了末日时间以回应美国和前苏联的氢弹研发竞赛 。
科学家们对今年的情况发表评论称，来自核武器的威胁日益陡增 。他们指出，美国退出了伊朗核协议，甚至还计划退出《中程导弹条约》（INF） 。科学家们还对朝鲜尚未解决的核局势以及许多国家的“核现代化”计划表示担忧，尤其是俄罗斯 。
在气候变化方面，科学家们呼吁人们关注过去两年温室气体排放量上升的问题 。这一增长是因为美国、俄罗斯、沙特和科威特等主要石油生产国无视有关温室气体危险影响的科学报告 。
科学家们认为，由于世界各地政治领导人的虚假情报，核武器和气候变化——这些人类面临的威胁日益恶化 。他们指出，民族主义领导人及其支持者在很多方面弄虚作假，尤其是在社交媒体方面 。科学家们说，这些领导人并不在意欺瞒民众，反而坚称“谎言才是事实，而事实是’假新闻’ 。”
为了让时针逆转，该组织呼吁各方采取一些行动，让世界更加安全 。这些措施包括延长美俄之间的核武器谈判，采取措施防止北约边界发生军事事件，要求采取行动应对气候变化，阻止利用虚假信息来降低公众信任 。