Experts: Growth of Cities Will Worsen Housing Crisis
Close to 70 percent of the world's population will live in cities by the year 2050. That prediction comes from the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs.
U.N. officials predict that another 2.5 billion people could be living in the world's cities by the middle of the century. Experts warn that population growth will worsen housing crises in some areas.
Large cities around the world, from Los Angeles to Mumbai, already struggle with housing issues. In some neighborhoods, rising housing prices have forced the very poor from their homes. Many poor people now live in simple, temporary shelters or on the street.
Kevin Klowden directs the Center for Regional Economics and California Center at the Milken Institute. He notes that people are moving to large cities not just for high paying jobs. He said that many are also looking for the chance to live and work with other people, career advancement and access to better resources.
Some countries have built new capital cities to help ease overcrowding. Nigeria, Myanmar, Kazakhstan and Tanzania have all moved their administrative centers in recent years. Egypt is building a new capital east of Cairo. Klowden says these efforts help, but do not solve the problem.
A U.N. report released in May noted that 37 million people live in Tokyo, the world's largest city by population. New Delhi follows with 29 million, and Shanghai with 26 million. Mexico City, Sao Paulo, Cairo, Mumbai, Beijing and Dhaka are each home to about 20 million people.
The report predicted that by 2030, the world will have 43 very large cities, each with more than 10 million people. The reports adds that some smaller cities will also have major population growth. By 2020, Tokyo's population is expected to begin to decrease. India, China and Nigeria will be responsible for one-third of the world's predicted urban expansion by 2050.
Eric Heikkila directs the Office of Global Engagement at the University of Southern California's Price School of Public Policy. He says that in many cases, population growth takes place before there are plans to deal with that growth. He added that land use rules sometimes are outdated.
People may be displaced by conflict, lack documents proving ownership of their land or have no lenders willing to help them buy a home. The World Bank says only 30 percent of land use rights are registered or recorded worldwide.
Tjada McKenna is chief operating officer for the aid group Habitat for Humanity International. She says that the ability to own a home in many countries is often difficult, especially for women and minority groups.
Private organizations, like Habitat for Humanity, are helping. It asks volunteers to build homes. The group has provided housing for more than 13 million people since its creation in 1976.
Habitat for Humanity also has loan programs for people living outside the United States. McKenna said, "We're allowing families to make their homes livable. With those (loans), people are installing toilets or cook stoves or other things."
Eric Heikkila noted that every city is different in dealing with development issues. Each one has its own economic forces at work, its own institutions at play and its own history, he said.
Experts say that answers to the housing crisis and other issues must be developed city by city.
I'm Jonathan Evans.
1.struggle with 与...斗争
Even to this day, I sometimes struggle with fear and perfection.
2.looking for 寻找
Her eyes searched his face as though looking for some clue.
3.access to 接近；获得
Everyone has access to the same information.
4.population growth 人口增长
The biggest problem was population growth because of the influx of immigrants to America.
5.He says that in many cases, population growth takes place before there are plans to deal with that growth.
deal with 处理；应付
When I worked in Florida I dealt with British people all the time
The President said the agreement would allow other vital problems to be dealt with.
6.He says that in many cases, population growth takes place before there are plans to deal with that growth.
takes place 发生
The action takes place on a steeply raked stage.
The meeting takes place against a background of continuing political violence.
到2050年，全球约70%的人口将会居住在城市 。这一预测出自联合国经济和社会事务部 。
联合国官员预计，到本世纪中叶，全球城市人口还会增加25亿 。专家警告说，人口增长将加剧某些地区的住房危机 。
从洛杉矶到孟买，世界各地的大城市都在努力解决住房问题 。在一些街区，不断上涨的房价迫使穷人离开家园 。许多穷人现在身居简陋的临时住所或露宿街头 。
凯文·克罗登（Kevin Klowden）负责米尔肯研究所的区域经济中心和加州中心 。他指出，人们移居大城市不仅仅是为了高薪工作 。他说，许多人也在寻找与他人一起生活和工作、职业发展以及获得更好资源的机会 。
一些国家建立了新的首都城市来帮助缓解过度拥挤的状况 。近年来，尼日利亚、缅甸、哈萨克斯坦和坦桑尼亚都迁移了行政中心 。埃及正在开罗东部建设新首都 。克罗登指出，这些措施只能缓解，但是无法解决问题 。
联合国5月份发布的一份报告指出，东京是全球人口最多的城市，居住人口有3700万 。新德里有2900万人口，上海有2600万人口 。墨西哥城、圣保罗、开罗、孟买、北京和达卡的人口约2000万 。
该报告预测，到2030年，全球将有43个特大城市，每个城市的人口将超过1000万 。该报告还指出，一些较小的城市也会出现大量的人口增长 。到2020年，东京的人口预计将开始减少 。到2050年，印度、中国和尼日利亚将占据全球城市扩张的三分之一 。
埃里克·海克拉(Eric Heikkila)负责南加州大学公共政策学院的全球战略办公室 。他说，在许多情况下，人口增长都发生在应对该增长的计划出台之前 。他补充说，土地使用规则有时已经过时 。
人们可能因为冲突、缺乏土地权证明文件或没人愿意贷款帮忙买房而流离失所 。世界银行表示，全球只有30%的土地使用权已经登记或记录在册 。
杰达·麦肯纳（Tjada McKenna）是“仁人家园”国际组织的首席运营官 。她说，在许多国家，有能力拥有一套住房往往很困难，尤其对女性和少数民族而言 。
“仁人家园”国际组织这样的私营组织正在提供帮助 。它邀请志愿者建造房屋 。自1976年创立以来，该组织已经为1300多万人提供了住房 。
“仁人家园”组织还为居住在美国境外的人们提供贷款 。麦肯纳表示：“我们确保建设的房子适宜居住 。有了这些贷款，人们开始修建厕所、安装炉灶等设施 。”
海克拉指出，每个城市在处理发展问题方面存在差异 。他说，每个城市都有自身有效的经济实力、发挥作用的制度和自身的历史 。