American Labor Day Arrives Five Months Late
September 3 is Labor Day in the United States. The national holiday began more than 100 years ago to honor low-paid factory workers.
Labor Day also informally marks the end of summer. Many students return to school after Labor Day. The hot days of summer turn cooler. Many Americans celebrate the holiday with an outdoor family barbecue.
But Labor Day started with a struggle. On May 1, 1889, workers demonstrated on the streets of Paris, France. International Labor Day was born. Most industrialized countries in the world -- except the United States and Canada -- celebrate Labor Day on the first of May.
The first American Labor Day celebration was held on September 5, 1882, in New York City. About 10,000 workers marched through the streets to show the strength of labor organizations.
For many years after that, American workers used the first Monday in September to demand better working conditions and pay. Music was a part of many of those marches.
Labor songs traditionally tell stories of conflict and hopes for a better life. Here is Pete Seeger's "We Shall Not Be Moved."
Many classic American labor songs came from workers in the coal mines of the South. Mine owners bitterly opposed workers' unions. In Kentucky, company police searched for union leaders. They waited outside a worker's home for several days to block him from organizing.
The coal miner's wife, Florence Reece, stayed inside with her children. She wrote this song, "Which Side Are You On?" Here is Natalie Merchant singing the song.
Another American labor song is called "Bread and Roses." It is based on a poem by James Oppenheim, published in December of 1911.
The poem speaks about the women's labor movement. At that time, conditions in factories, where many women worked, were horrible. A fire at a clothing factory in New York killed 146 people. Most of the victims were immigrant women.
A month after Oppenheim's poem was published, textile workers in Lawrence, Massachusetts went on strike. Their protest won them higher pay and better working conditions. Oppenheim's poem gained more attention.
Here is singer Judy Collins' version of "Bread and Roses."
Even though Labor Day demonstrations are not as common in the U.S., the song reminds us to celebrate the effort and love that many people give to their work.
I'm Ashley Thompson.
1.family barbecue 家庭烧烤
Is everything ready for the big family barbecue tomorrow?
2.Even though 即使
He had no plans to retire even though he is now very comfortably off.
3.started with 从...开始
He started with sketching and then progressed to painting.
4.coal miner 矿工
My grandfather was a coal miner.
5.At that time, conditions in factories, where many women worked, were horrible.
At that time 在那时
At that time we were students.
We were in the same college, which was male-only at that time.
6.Oppenheim's poem gained more attention.
gained more attention 受到更多关注
Bracelets and cuffs have gained more attention in the last few years.
The recovery of used products has gained much more attention recently due to the growing environmental concerns.
9月3日是美国劳动节 。这个全国性节日始于100多年前，目的是向低薪的工厂工人致敬 。
通俗来讲，劳动节也标志着夏季的结束 。许多学生在劳动节后返校 。夏季炎热的天气逐渐转凉 。许多美国人选择以户外家庭烧烤的方式庆祝这一节日 。
不过，劳动节始于一场斗争 。1889年5月1日，工人们在法国巴黎街头示威 。国际劳动节由此诞生 。全球大多数工业化国家——除美国和加拿大外——都在5月1日庆祝劳动节 。
1882年9月5日，美国首个劳动节庆典在纽约市举行 。当时，约1万名工人涌上街头，展示了劳动群体的庞大力量 。
此后多年，美国工人在9月的第一个星期一要求改善工作条件和提高薪资待遇 。而音乐成为众多游行的一部分 。
劳动歌曲通常描述的是冲突以及对美好生活的向往 。这是为大家播放一首皮特·西格（Pete Seeger）的《我们绝不动摇》 。
许多经典的美国劳工歌曲来源于南方的矿工 。当时的矿主极力反对工人工会 。在肯塔基州，公司雇佣的保安四处搜寻工会领袖 。他们在一名旷工的家外监视数日，阻止他动员其他旷工 。
矿工的妻子弗洛伦斯·里斯（Florence Reece）和孩子们被禁足家中 。她写下歌曲《你究竟站在哪一边？》 。这首歌由娜坦莉·莫森特（Natalie Merchant）演唱 。
另一首美国劳工歌曲名为《面包与玫瑰》 。歌曲根据詹姆斯·奥本海姆（James Oppenheim）于1911年12月发表的一首诗改编而成 。
这首诗讲述的是女性的劳工运动 。当时，许多妇女在工厂工作，那里的工作条件十分恶劣 。纽约一家服装厂发生火灾，造成146人死亡 。其中大多数遇难者为移民妇女 。
奥本海姆的诗发表一个月后，马萨诸塞州劳伦斯市的纺织工人举行了罢工 。他们的抗议为其赢得了更高的工资和更好的工作条件 。奥本海姆的诗得到了更多的关注 。