Report Urges US, Russian Cooperation on Nuclear Arms Control
The United States and Russia urgently need to restart cooperation to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons, a new report says.
The International Institute for Strategic Studies, or IISS, based in London released the report. It is called "Once and Future Partners: The United States, Russia and Nuclear Non-Proliferation."
The study uses formerly secret documents to show incidents in which the U.S. and Western countries cooperated with Russia to limit the spread of nuclear weapons in the past.
Cold War competitors worked together to limit nuclear arms
One important example of cooperation during the period known as the Cold War took place in August of 1977.
Soviet spy satellites showed preparations for a nuclear weapons test at a military base in South Africa. At the time, South Africa was ruled by a system of racial separation known as apartheid. The Soviets consulted with the U.S. before publicly announcing their findings.
Nicholas Redman is with the IISS. He spoke about relations between the U.S. and Soviet Union. He said the incident shows that, even during the tense period of the Cold War, the two sides could work together.
Redman said, "The Soviets took the risk of sharing this intelligence with the United States."
South Africa denied it planned to carry out a nuclear weapons test. However, U.S. intelligence soon confirmed the presence of the test site. It helped pressure South Africa to cancel its plans.
Another example was the cooperation between U.S. President Jimmy Carter and Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev.
Redman says that personal relationship were important, but other supports needed to be in place to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons.
"The fact that there were arms control specialists and scientific specialists in both governments, the fact that they met regularly...this was actually vital in building the entire regime," he said.
The development of a plan for limiting the spread of nuclear weapons took about 10 years of talks in Geneva during the 1960s. The result was the 1970 Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). It remains important to nuclear arms control. But the NPT is being questioned more than at any time in its past.
Redman noted: "So there's a need for an investment to rebuild these habits of cooperation because the threats haven't actually gone away. There are still a lot of nuclear weapons that aren't as secure as we would like them to be. There are even more nuclear materials..."
A new arms race?
Some experts are concerned that a new nuclear arms race is developing. They point to Russia developing so called tactical atomic weapons and American efforts to modernize nuclear weapons.
The United Nations has tried to support nuclear arms control with the 2017 Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons. However, no nuclear powers have been willing to sign the treaty.
Redman said, "Unless the United States and Russia cooperate, the problem is they could very quickly lose the initiative they have held up ‘till now."
I'm Mario Ritter.
1.held up 举起
The process of judicial selection was held up to ridicule.
2.Nuclear Weapons 核武器
He claims that several countries have developed nuclear weapons secretly.
3.arms race 军备竞赛
The arms race between the countries badly affects people's living standards.
4.gone away 消失
He has gone away on business so I didn't see him.
5.Cold War competitors worked together to limit nuclear arms
worked together to 合作...
We worked together to combine our knowledge.
Sixteen countries from all around the world worked together to plan and construct a permanent space station.
6.South Africa denied it planned to carry out a nuclear weapons test.
carry out 实施
I myself will firmly carry out this plan.
The operator has to be able to carry out routine maintenance of the machine.
苏联间谍卫星显示，南非一处军事基地在进行核武器试验的准备工作。当时的南非处于种族隔离制度的统治中 。在公布他们的发现之前，苏联与美国进行了磋商 。
尼古拉斯·莱德曼（Nicholas Redman）在国际战略研究所任职。他谈及美国和苏联的关系 。他说，这一事件表明，即使再冷战的紧张时期，双方也可通力合作 。
而南非否认计划进行核武器试验。然而，不久，美国情报部门证实了该试验场的存在 。这有助于迫使南非取消核计划 。
还有一个是美国总统卡特（Jimmy Carter）与苏联领导人勃列日涅夫（Leonid Brezhnev）的合作。
20世纪60年代，限制核武器扩散计划在日内瓦经历了约10年的谈判。最终诞生了1970年的《不扩散核武器条约》 。这份条约依然对控制核武器至关重要 。但是《不扩散核武器条约》正遭受前所未有的质疑 。