VOA慢速英语(翻译+字幕+讲解):科学家:早期人类聪明得超乎想象
日期:2018-04-09 12:11

(单词翻译:单击)

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听力文本

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Scientists: Early Humans Were Not as Simple as One Would Think

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Scientists have discovered evidence that some of the earliest members of the human race, Homo sapiens, were surprisingly advanced.

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Scientists say these early humans knew how to use color pigments found in nature, create advanced tools and trade for supplies with other groups of people.

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A report on the discovery was published recently in the journal Science.

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The scientists said they examined artifacts recovered from southern Kenya. Some of the objects are said to date back to 320,000 years ago. They are about the same age as the earliest-known Homo sapiens fossils found in other parts of Africa.

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In the report, the researchers described an ochre pigment that produced a bright-red color. They say this pigment could have been used for body painting. They also found tools made from obsidian, a volcanic rock that can have an extremely sharp edge.

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The researchers found evidence of obsidian being transported to the Olorgesailie Basin, up to 88 kilometers away from where the rock was found. This discovery led the scientists to believe it had come from another group through trade. But they did not know what was provided in exchange for the obsidian.

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The researchers said the findings show developments in technology and social structures unexpected so early in human history.

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Rick Potts is a paleoanthropologist and director of the Human Origins Program at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History in Washington D.C. He believes that these newly identified mental and social abilities — including recognition of "distant groups, use of pigments and technologies including projectile points — were at the foundation of our species' origin."

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Alison Brooks, another paleoanthropologist, is with the George Washington University in Washington, D.C. Speaking of the pigment, she said, "The choice of importing the ochre from a distance rather than using a more common local material...argues that having a red face or hair or clothing or weapons also carried a symbolic message of some sort."

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The researchers described the obsidian tools they found as smaller, of better quality, and more specialized than larger stone tools used by earlier human species.

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The obsidian was used in a number of tools with sharp or pointy edges. The rock was also found in small, sharp points that could be placed at the end of a piece of wood or bone for use as a weapon.

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I'm Jonathan Evans.

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重点解析

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1.human race 人类

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Some people think that the existence of nuclear weapons is a threat to the future of the human race.

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有些人认为核武器的存在对人类的未来是个威胁xgRd7imtH+

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2.a number of 若干;一些

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The research begs a number of questions.

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研究绕过了一些问题RjxOGs)6SXlisWF75[;

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3.at the end of 在...尽头

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There is a shop at the end of this lane.

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这条胡同的顶头有一家商店odWCk-ZOBS

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4.body painting 人体绘画

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In other cultures, the use of body painting is a bit more serious.

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在其他文化中,身体绘画更认真一些9]]XyjNE]qZaTBP

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5.But they did not know what was provided in exchange for the obsidian.

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in exchange for 交换

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The trade unions bargained away their rights in exchange for a small pay rise.

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工会不惜牺牲自己的权利以换取微薄的加薪GFWL%)nmai2YTUi@L0

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I will teach you Chinese in exchange for your teaching me English.

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我教你汉语,作为交换条件,你教我英语1s0EkAkv0W1(iGK

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6.Some of the objects are said to date back to 320,000 years ago.

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date back to 追溯

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My family has a vase, which is said to date back to Ming Dynasty.

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我家有个花瓶,据说是从明代传下来的rA8NLpPp.pI@]Ro_1y

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Oxford and Cambridge date back to the thirteenth century.

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牛津和剑桥的历史可追溯到十三世纪l(RQ,tR&LdxvE(

参考译文

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科学家:早期人类聪明得超乎想象

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科学家发现的一些证据表明:作为史上最早的一些人种,智人在(在技术方面)的先进让人吃惊9z@XZ!4oJ-|(*|m

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科学家称,这些早期人类知道如何利用自然界中的一些色素,发明先进的工具以及与其它人群交换物品ib])0lG|&Tti

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最近,关于该发现的一篇报告刊登在《科学》杂志上iUmSD.yk4W%

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科学家表示,他们检查了肯尼亚南部出土的文物SS%P=6*7|Wfhic5_Fn7Y。据说,其中一些物品可追溯至32万年前,与非洲其它地区发现的已知最早的智人化石年代相仿swBs%VvGFteee%0jRfgu

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研究人员在报告中描述了一种可产生鲜艳红色的赭色色素yNHDG4~M!Y=ego。他们说,这种色素可用于人体绘画]UEx5TLjDVCb[TFm90%M。科学家还发现了用黑曜石制成的工具,黑曜石是一种火山岩,其边缘锋利(siP8d#nC@fcnMg;

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科学家:早期人类聪明得超乎想象.jpg

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研究人员发现了黑曜石被运往奥洛戈赛利叶盆地的证据,盆地距岩石出土地约88公里zA)_M~M94Uh。该发现让科学家们确信,这是与其他族群进行物品交易的证据m*VP6rXjb1V+g*h@5e;。但是,与黑曜石进行交换的是何物呢?对此,科学家就无从得知了P*whN.pQUHE;vgM

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研究人员称,这一发现表明,在人类历史早期竟然存在意想不到的技术发展和社会结构IqTTrvNHj%qn,n

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瑞克·波兹(Rick Potts)是古人类学者,也是位于华盛顿特区的史密斯博物馆所属的美国国家自然历史博物馆研究人类起源项目的负责人Naf^Yebu(S)&46zENZ。他认为,这些新发现的脑力和社会能力,包括对族群、颜料、以及箭头(尖头器,石制的抛掷尖物)等技术的认知是人类起源的基础n7J]N#V+7Th

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另一位古人类学家艾莉森·布鲁克斯(Alison Brooks)任职于华盛顿特区的乔治华盛顿大学nr496ijA8_p+|vsA.9P。她提及颜料时表示:“从放弃当地更普遍的材料却从远方购入赭石可得知,面赤或红发、红衣、红色武器带有某种象征性的意义”efe@,)V6J_-*k

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研究人员描述了他们发现的黑曜石工具,比更早期的人类所使用的大型石器工具更为小巧、坚固、也更加专业=qgf~o87h5CKECSaZ*p+

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黑曜石被用于很多工具的锐利边缘或尖刃处o#rttkngElc%CrL~。此外,这种岩石还被发现用于木头或骨头末端的尖锐处,作为武器使用S,DaI,Mh9s6ymU

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乔纳森·埃文斯为您播报637zmuP!P@M90d)J^

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译文为可可英语翻译,未经授权请勿转载!

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重点单词
  • evidencen. 根据,证据 v. 证实,证明
  • speciesn. (单复同)物种,种类
  • projectilen. 发射体,抛射物 adj. 发射的,投射的
  • identifiedadj. 被识别的;经鉴定的;被认同者 v. 鉴定(id
  • foundationn. 基础,根据,建立 n. 粉底霜,基金会
  • advancedadj. 高级的,先进的
  • mentaladj. 精神的,脑力的,精神错乱的 n. 精神病患者
  • exchangen. 交换,兑换,交易所 v. 交换,兑换,交易
  • symbolicn. 代号 adj. 象征的,符号的
  • qualityn. 品质,特质,才能 adj. 高品质的