Facebook Likes Can Tell a Lot About You
Facebook "likes" can tell a lot about a person.
In a 2013 study, researchers showed they could use Facebook "likes" to correctly predict personal information, including a user's sexual identity and ethnicity.
The researchers could also predict a person's age, intelligence, and opinions about religion and politics. They could identify whether someone is happy or used addictive substances. They could even predict whether an individual's parents would stay together until the person turned 21 years old.
The study was based on information from 58,000 volunteers who provided "likes" to Facebook, the American social media company. The findings were published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
The researchers used computer programs to look for hard-to-establish patterns, such as a link between a love for curly fries and higher intelligence.
The 2013 study found that Facebook users who rated high on Openness often liked Hello Kitty brand products. They also were more likely to be of African-American ancestry and support Democratic Party values.
Many businesses urge people to log on to their websites with Facebook or other social media accounts. This, in turn, provides companies with a complete picture of the user's birthday, list of friends, schools attended and other personal information.
Marketers often use Facebook "likes" and other digital records to sell products and improve services.
The researchers warned about the possible misuse of digital records and personal information. They said marketers can collect information about large numbers of people without asking for their approval and without them noticing. They said companies, governmental agencies, or even one's Facebook friends could gather data that an individual may not have wanted to share.
Cambridge Analytica use of Facebook
Last week, Facebook reported that a private company called Cambridge Analytica did just that with data from its social media website.
Facebook said Cambridge Analytica collected private information, including Facebook "likes," from more than 50 million Facebook users. It said the company got the information from 270,000 people who downloaded a software program described as a personality test. Those individuals agreed to share personal information for a study.
A researcher also took the information of all their Facebook friends, a move that was permitted under Facebook's rules until 2015. The researcher then sold the information to Cambridge Analytica, which used the data during the 2016 election campaign in the United States. The company worked for then candidate Donald Trump. However, a Trump campaign official said the campaign used Republican data sources, not Cambridge Analytica, for voter information.
Facebook suspended Cambridge Analytica for violating its rule. And it was considering legal action against the company.
Those measures might not be enough to satisfy U.S. and British officials.
Britain's Information Commissioner Elizabeth Denham said she is seeking permission to search Cambridge Analytica's London headquarters. She wanted to see whether Facebook did enough to protect users' personal information about themselves and their friends.
Several U.S. lawmakers want Facebook chief Mark Zuckerberg to speak to Congress about the use of its users' information.
1.personal information 个人信息
The privacy and security of your personal information is very important to us.
2.legal action 法律诉讼
Martin was thinking of taking legal action against Zuckerman.
3.election campaign 竞选活动
The election campaign has now entered its final, decisive phase.
4.social media 社交媒体
We have all witnessed the power of social media.
5.This, in turn, provides companies with a complete picture of the user's birthday, list of friends, schools attended and other personal information.
in turn 轮流；反而
In the city squares the neon lights flashed in turn.
There were cheers for each of the women as they spoke in turn.
6.The study was based on information from 58,000 volunteers who provided "likes" to Facebook, the American social media company.
based on 以...为基础
The study was based on data from 2,100 women.
The judge's ruling was based on the simple commonsense tenet that no man is above the law.
这份2013年的研究还发现，开放程度较高的脸书用户通常喜欢Hello Kitty品牌的产品。他们也很可能拥有非洲裔美国人血统，并且支持民主党的价值观 。
研究人员对可能滥用数字记录和个人信息的行为提出警告。他们指出，在未告知用户且没有得到对方同意的情况下，营销人员可以收集大量个人信息 。他们表示，公司、政府机构甚至脸书好友都可能收集用户不愿分享的信息 。
脸书方面称，“剑桥分析”公司收集了5000多万脸书用户的个人信息，其中包括脸书的“赞”。脸书表示，这家公司从一款个性测试软件程序中获得了27万名下载该软件的用户的信息 。这些用户同意分享个人信息进行研究 。
一位研究人员还收集到他们所有好友的信息，此举符合2015年脸书作出的规定。研究人员之后将信息出售给“剑桥分析”公司，该公司在2016年美国大选期间使用了这些数据 。该公司为当时的总统候选人特朗普效力 。然而，特朗普的竞选官员表示，竞选使用的选民信息来自于共和党的数据源，而不是“剑桥分析”公司 。
英国信息专员伊丽莎白·德纳姆（Elizabeth Denham）表示，她正在申请搜查“剑桥分析”公司伦敦总部的授权。她好奇，脸书是否做了足够的措施保护用户个人及其好友的个人信息 。