VOA慢速英语(翻译+字幕+讲解):超级老人:大脑依然年轻态
日期:2018-03-08 15:28

(单词翻译:单击)

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听力文本

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Young Brains of Super-Agers
From VOA Learning English, this is the Health & Lifestyle Report.
As we age, our ability to think and remember starts to deteriorate.
But not everyone.
Some of us have brains that age more slowly.
Enter the super-ager!
Super-agers are people over the age of 80 who have the brain structures and abilities of much younger people.
Eighty-seven-year-old Bill Gurolnick is a super-ager.
"What do I feel like? If I was to give a number, I probably feel like I'm about my early 70s..."
Scientists know that parts of the brain decrease in size with age. But in super-agers that process is much slower.
Emily Rogalski is a neuroscientist at Northwestern University's Feinberg School of Medicine, in Chicago, Illinois. In a recent study, she showed that super-agers have young brains. The area of the brain responsible for attention and memory -- the cortex -- was shown to be thicker in super-agers.
"When we look at the cortex of their brain, we see that, on average, that it looks more like a 50-year-old brain than it looks like an average 80-year-old brain..."
Not only do super-agers have thicker cortexes, they have more von Economo neurons. These large brain cells appear to be involved with social-emotional communication. But their exact purpose is still a mystery.
Scientists writing for Smithsonian magazine also call them spindle neurons, and say they are "brain cells for socializing."
Several factors affect how our brains age
Scientists say super-agers have several things in common, including an active lifestyle. Many travel and play sports. They are often big readers. And they usually have healthy relationships and spend time with friends.
Super-agers also seem to have certain common personality traits. Rogalski says they are, for the most part, known for their optimism, resilience and perseverance.
Growing old, she adds, does not have to be depressing and sad.
"Perhaps, if we expected a bit better from ourselves, then we would understand that not all aging is 'doom and gloom..."
As lead investigator of the study, Rogalski jokingly said that super-agers do not grow on trees -- meaning they are special and few.
She says she wants to find out the reasons Gurolnick's mind is working so well and not aging as quickly as most.
Gurolnick's own father was diagnosed with Alzheimer's in his 50s. Solving this mystery, Rogalski says, may help those who suffer from brain diseases such as Alzheimer's.
"We think if we can understand the factors contributing to super-aging, it may offer new hypotheses and new ways to explore the challenges in Alzheimer's disease."
Can we all be super-agers?
The science behind super-aging is a relatively new, but growing field. Scientists involved in the research offer this advice as we age: Stay active. Learn new things. Challenge yourself. Surround yourself with healthy relationships.
And that's the Health & Lifestyle report.
I'm Anna Matteo.

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重点解析

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1.brain structure 大脑构造

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Researchers say these behaviors are due to basic differences in brain structure and activity.
研究人员表示,这些行为是由大脑结构和大脑活动的基本差异所引起的3j|rN=oMbPbdmW#6]^I

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2.feel like 感觉

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I don't feel like a walk just now.
这会儿我不想去散步Hq5ZfGWqVwgXPc6i9u^

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3.be involved with 涉及

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I committed the physician's cardinal sin: I got involved with my patients.
我犯了从医的大忌:跟病人有了感情纠葛1;wmUfsL2[CJ

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4.have...in common 有...相同之处

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He had very little in common with his sister.
他和姐姐几乎没有什么共同语言How52XZx+D37

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5.Rogalski says they are, for the most part, known for their optimism, resilience and perseverance.

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for the most part 很大程度上;多半

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The students are, for the most part, from the villages.
这些学生一大半来自农村le+7x+5#fY.Iq2y#
Professors, for the most part, are firmly committed to teaching, not research.
大多数教授都投身于教学,而不是研究Pr)3v]~aoTOrZdM-

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6."When we look at the cortex of their brain, we see that, on average, that it looks more like a 50-year-old brain than it looks like an average 80-year-old brain..."

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on average 平均;通常

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American shares rose, on average, by 38%.
美国股票价格平均上涨了38%Tr2XbhCaZ#b
On average each report requires 1,000 hours to prepare.
准备一份报告平均需要1,000小时MW%+M&oDMz!

参考译文

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超级老人:大脑依然年轻态
这里是VOA慢速英语健康生活报道503iV|pvoq0zI
随着年龄增长,我们的思考和记忆能力开始退化JnvVB,yl_19hDVRl
但也有例外Vu1+7|iCkJLT9ejvJ=*I
有些人的大脑衰老速度会慢一些0AuiR(+o0].E]+
也就是超级老人!
超级老人是年龄在80岁以上却拥有年轻的大脑结构和机能(b49VP@##3ft,4]s
87岁的比尔·古洛尼克是超级老人之一rWu.LnoUfnf
“我感觉如何?如果用数字来形容的话,我觉得我应该是70岁……”
科学家们了解,大脑的某些区域会随着年龄增长而萎缩g!-s^45A^(。而对于超级老人,这一过程相对较慢(4O&7Ffj*_N*
艾米丽·罗加尔斯基(Emily Rogalski)是美国伊利诺斯州芝加哥市西北大学范伯格医学院的神经科学家]bd7ztdQa8,=a4w。她在最近一项研究中指出,超级老人拥有更为年轻的大脑]R%=lR3!&lPY)Ci!Ow*4。超级老人的大脑皮层(大脑中负责注意力和记忆的区域)更厚1T[9S^iWifN)1JbRL+
“我们观察他们的大脑皮层时发现,平均来说,他们的大脑看起来更像是50岁,而不是80岁……”

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超级老人:大脑依然年轻态.jpg
超级老人不仅拥有更厚的大脑皮层,还拥有更多的von Economo神经元*JjW2BDQ*rTNstD。这些巨大的脑细胞似乎与社会情感交流有关2pTYH)rx)]JGCC。但它们的确切功能仍然是个谜q2k34WGUJ(
为《史密森尼杂志》撰稿的科学家也称其为“纺锤体神经元”,并指出它们是“用于社交的脑细胞”chWQSY=sCCh%[
科学家表示,超级老人有很多共同之处,比如积极的生活方式VzNe_PF-[I。爱好旅行和运动M5Sc+2pbY=#D[c|tt!jA。他们经常进行大量的阅读T5RLUdFKVEd~cpT。他们通常也拥有良好的人际关系,喜欢和朋友相处P%_LOwC~s^a
超级老人们似乎在性格方面也颇为相似6LNZQlqqy&]。罗加尔斯基说,他们大多乐观、坚韧、有毅力q5)CuJQ1tJL
她还表示说,不必因为变老而沮丧或悲伤|4Zp)[z-B3U9n1yW*q^e
“也许,如果我们对自己的期望高一点就会明白,并不是所有的衰老都是‘厄运和苦难’……”
作为这项研究的首席研究员,罗加尔斯基打趣称,超级老人并非“长在树上”——意味着他们十分特别且稀有URZjoZN(qM%tr0
她说,她想找出古洛尼克头脑反映迅速,不像多数人那样快速衰老的原因iIeTL(@((hLW
古洛尼克的父亲在50多岁时被诊断出患有阿尔茨海默氏症w]]8IQr*w=VWHF7。罗加尔斯基说,解开这个谜团或将帮助那些患有阿尔茨海默氏症等脑部疾病的患者Pp8dD!YrKNg!f+oL%gT
“我们认为,如果了解了超级老人的成因,可能会为应对阿尔茨海默氏症的挑战提供新的假说和途径&1gj=]=Dx3t3r。”
超级老人背后的科学属于相对较新、但不断上升的领域g^j=d#JuKYn)q96。参与这项研究的科学家们提出了以下建议,随着年龄增长,我们要保持活跃C_.Sb=K8z,0@1BkhmDdA。学习新事物W%(B9X!h#~TVZ。挑战自己*V_-a[4+]Fd9!。让自己拥有健康的人际关系li=,3#zbHgsq;23Wt
以上为健康生活报道的全部内容yl%Ic(B4tPcbmythww2
我是安娜·马特奥HI4[)1_]Xl!bHMTUAbX

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译文为可可英语翻译,未经授权请勿转载!

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重点单词
  • communicationn. 沟通,交流,通讯,传达,通信
  • resiliencen. 适应力,弹性,收缩性
  • cardinaln. 红衣主教,鲜红色,基数,北美红雀 adj. 主要的
  • challengen. 挑战 v. 向 ... 挑战
  • perseverancen. 毅力,忍耐,不屈不挠
  • mysteryn. 神秘,秘密,奥秘,神秘的人或事物
  • committedadj. 献身于某种事业的,委托的
  • explorev. 探险,探测,探究
  • deterioratevt. (使)恶化 vi. (使)恶化,瓦解,衰退
  • certainadj. 确定的,必然的,特定的 pron. 某几个,某