What Effect Will Cuts to UN Peacekeeping Have?
One of the foreign policy goals of United States President Donald Trump's administration has been to reform United Nations peacekeeping.
The administration says that the U.N. peacekeeping missions should cut costs and that the U.S. should pay less for them.
Earlier this year, the U.N. announced it would cut its budget by $600 million. Nikki Haley, the U.S. ambassador to the U.N., supported the announcement. She said, "We're just getting started."
Vice President Mike Pence has been critical of the U.N.'s peacekeeping missions. In September, he told the U.N. Security Council that peacekeeping missions should be more efficient and need to do a better job.
Paul Williams is a professor at George Washington University's Elliott School of International Affairs. He said that it is a good idea to find ways to cut costs. However, he noted, blanket cuts can make it more difficult to keep soldiers safe.
Fifteen U.N. peacekeeping missions are ongoing around the world, including eight in Africa. The United States provides 28 percent of the U.N. peacekeeping budget. That is the most of any country. China is second, providing 10 percent of the budget.
Williams says the United States has a legal obligation to pay 28 percent of the peacekeeping budget. The U.S. has pushed to reduce the total budget in order to decrease the amount it has to pay.
The peacekeeping budget is now $7.3 billion.
To reduce costs, the U.N. must either close missions or reduce operations. Carrying out missions with a smaller budget could mean cutting personnel or logistical support.
Both choices concern Williams. He said U.N. peacekeepers already operate with few resources.
In early December, an attack in the Democratic Republic of Congo killed 14 Tanzanian peacekeepers and five Congolese soldiers. The attack showed the risks faced by U.N. peacekeeping missions.
The mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo will likely face more difficulties. That is because the country's president, Joseph Kabila, has refused to step down, even though he has reached his two-term limit.
Aditi Gorur is director of the Protecting Civilians in Conflict Program at The Stimson Center, a research group in Washington DC.
Gorur notes that some U.N. missions have already had large reductions.
"A big part of the motivation for those cuts was pressure from the U.S. government," she said.
Gorur worries that reductions are not well planned and "the cuts come first and then the strategy comes later."
She notes that rising levels of "local intercommunal violence" will likely continue in places like the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Williams said that, while some things can be done better with the same budget, cuts can place added pressure on peacekeepers.
I'm John Russell.
1.foreign policy 外交政策
Responsibility and moderation were to be the keynotes of their foreign policy.
2.well planned 计划周详的
Everything I do is very well planned.
3.Carrying out 实施；进行
You have been so prompt in carrying out all these commissions.
4.legal obligation 法定义务
You have a legal obligation toensure your child receives a proper education.
5.That is because the country's president, Joseph Kabila, has refused to step down, even though he has reached his two-term limit.
step down 辞职；下台
Many would prefer to see him step downin favour of a younger man.
The reactionaries will never, of their own accord, step down from the stage of history.
6.She said, "We're just getting started."
getting started 准备开始
I've come a long way and I feel I'm just getting started.
I am looking forward to seeing you and getting started as soon as possible.
年初，联合国宣布将削减6亿美元的预算 。美国驻联合国大使尼基·黑利（Nikki Haley）对这一声明表示支持 。她说，“我们才刚开始 。”
美国副总统彭斯一直对联合国的维和行动不满 。今年9月，他向联合国安理会指出，维和行动应该更有效率，需要做得更好 。
保罗·威廉姆斯（Paul Williams）是乔治华盛顿大学埃利奥特国际事务学院教授 。他说，设法削减成本无可厚非 。不过他指出，全面削减将难以保障维和士兵的人身安全 。
联合国共有15项维和行动在世界各地开展，其中有8项在非洲 。美国承担了联合国维和预算的28%，居各国之首 。而中国承担了10%的预算，仅次于美国 。
威廉姆斯表示，美国承担28%的维和预算是法定义务 。美国一直在削减维和总预算，以减少其必须承担的费用 。
为了减少开支，联合国必须终止或减少维和行动 。在较低的预算下执行维和行动意味着削减人员或是后勤保障 。
这两种可能都让威廉姆斯感到忧心 。他指出，联合国维和部队行动的资源本来就少 。
12月初，刚果民主共和国发生的一场袭击导致14名坦桑尼亚维和士兵和5名刚果士兵遇难 。这次袭击显示出联合国维和行动所面临的风险 。
刚果民主共和国的维和行动可能会面临更多困难 。因为该国总统卡比拉已经达到两届任期限制，但他拒不让位 。
阿迪提·格鲁尔（Aditi Gorur）是美国史汀生中心保护冲突中的平民项目负责人，这是一家位于华盛顿的研究组织 。