Three Out of Four Children Experience Violence
From VOA Learning English, this is the Health & Lifestyle report.
Each year nearly three out of four children around the world experience some kind of violence.
A new report confirms that finding and another troubling development: Childhood violence is linked with violence against women. Children who see their mother being abused are more likely to be abused as an adult or become abusers themselves.
The report is called "Ending Violence in Childhood: Global Report 2017."
The study was prepared for a children's rights group called Know Violence in Childhood. The organization was launched in India three years ago.
The study found that childhood violence happens nearly everywhere -- in rich and poor countries alike. It affects an estimated 1.7 billion children every year.
This violence includes fighting or bullying -- the mistreatment or abuse of someone by a stronger or more powerful individual. It can also include sexual abuse, sexual violence and physical punishment, both at home and in school. The researchers did not include violence from war and other events.
Ramya Subrahmanian is executive director of Know Violence in Childhood. She said that children experience emotional and physical punishment at young ages -- some from as early as two years of age.
She adds that violence is a learned behavior that comes from deep, long-held cultural values. For example, in some societies, beating is a form of discipline.
Economic cost of childhood violence
The researchers say there is also an economic cost to society when children experience violence. They found that children who experience violence at home are more likely to miss school or even leave school and never return. They are less likely to get an education and succeed in life.
Know Violence in Childhood reports that up to 8% of the world's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is spent on repairing the damage caused by childhood violence. GDP is usually defined as the total value of all goods and services. The report notes that even with such a high cost, governments fail to invest in policies that could stop the causes of childhood violence.
The group's website explores ways to end the violence.
It reports that experts say the first step is to speak out about violence against children. Keeping silent only increases the chance that violence will continue. The experts also say that it is important to educate caregivers and empower children to be strong and resilient.
The report says that anti-violence education needs to be included in school systems, community programs and in health services.
And that's the Health & Lifestyle report.
I'm Anna Matteo.
1.rights group 权益组织
His company is working with the Kenyan government and a children's rights group.
2.health services 卫生服务
The fund is earmarked for public health services.
3.speak out 大声说出
He has the courage to speak out what he thinks right.
4.sexual abuse 性虐待
Reports of sexual abuse also surfaced recently in Germany and elsewhere.
5.It can also include sexual abuse, sexual violence and physical punishment, both at home and in school.
take place 发生；举行
Some even put forward a proposal that regarding physical punishment upon children as a crime.
He never once used physical punishment on me.
6.The researchers say there is also an economic cost to society when children experience violence.
economic cost 经济成本
She says poor management of chemicals has a high economic cost.
If a country is using only half of its resources, there will be an economic cost.
一项新报告证实了这一结果及另一令人不安的发展态势：童年时期的暴力与针对妇女的暴力有关 。那些看到母亲被虐待的儿童成年后更易被虐待或成为施虐者 。
这项研究是为一个儿童权益组织准备的，该组织名为“了解童年暴力” 。该组织于三年前在印度成立 。
研究发现，无论是发达国家还是落后国家，儿童暴力几乎无处不在 。每年约有17亿儿童受到暴力影响 。
这种暴力包括斗殴和欺凌 。欺凌是指健硕或权势的一方虐待他人 。包括在家中和校内的对他人实施性虐待、性暴力和体罚 。研究人员没有将因战争和其它事件产生的暴力纳入范围 。
雅拉姆（Ramya Subrahmanian）是“了解童年暴力”的执行董事 。她表示，儿童在年幼时会经历情感和身体方面的惩罚，有些人甚至在2岁时就经历过 。
她还指出，暴力是一种从深远、长期的文化价值观中习得的行为 。例如，在某些社会中，殴打是一种纪律 。
研究人员表示，当儿童遭受暴力时，社会也会遭受经济损失 。他们发现，遭遇家庭暴力的儿童更易逃学，甚至完全辍学 。他们接受教育并获得成功的几率更小 。
“了解童年暴力”的报告指出，全球GDP的8%用于修复童年暴力造成的损害 。GDP通常是指所有商品和服务的总价值 。报告指出，即便如此高昂的开支，政府也未能出台一些遏制儿童暴力现象的相关政策 。
该组织的报告显示，专家称首先要大声说出暴力侵害儿童的行为 。沉默只会让暴力行为有增无减 。专家还指出，教育看护人、让儿童变强大、坚韧很重要 。