American Wins Nobel Prize in Economics
American economist Richard Thaler has won the 2017 Nobel Prize for Economics.
Thaler was recognized for his work as a behavioral economist. That means he studies the reasons behind the economic decisions people make.
Thaler received the prize partly for his research into why people often make irrational financial decisions. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences announced the $1.1 million prize on Monday.
Speaking of the prize money, Thaler told reporters in Chicago after the announcement, "I will spend it as irrationally as possible."
Things people do to make financial decisions
The award committee said Thaler explored "the consequences of limited rationality, social preferences, and lack of self-control." It said the American economist's work has shown how human qualities affect people's individual decisions and the movements of financial markets.
Thaler developed the theory of "mental accounting." It describes how people create separate accounts in their minds to try to simplify financial decision-making.
He described how this can lead to less rational financial decisions like saving for a vacation while paying high credit card interest.
His research, Bloomberg noted, showed that people often choose short-term pleasures, "which is why many people fail to plan and save for old age."
The Reuters said Thaler's research showed that such traits "as lack of self-control and fear of losing what you already have" can cause people to make bad short-term decisions.
One of those, Thaler noted, was keeping stock shares that have lost value or selling them too soon when they have gained value.
Thaler helped develop the "nudge" theory. It is the idea that small incentives can influence people to make good decisions. He said people should be permitted to make their own choices, but society "should actively try to guide individuals in the right direction."
Cass Sunstein and Thaler wrote about the idea in the 2008 book "Nudge."
The theory has been used by political candidates as they work to influence voters and government officials seeking to make changes in society.
Other areas also interested Thaler. He studied fairness. He found that people can accept increasing prices if the costs of many things are going up. But he found that they strongly disapprove of companies that raise prices simply because of high demand for one product.
Bloomberg called Thaler's Nobel Prize "a reward for 40 years of work spent studying human bias and temptation."
Thaler is considered one of the first behavioral economists. His field, once criticized, has grown in popularity among economists over the last 10 years.
The economist even briefly appeared in the 2010 movie, "The Big Short," about the global financial crisis.
Thaler is a professor of behavioral science and economics at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business.
The economics prize was created in 1968 in memory of Alfred Nobel after his death. Since then, 79 individuals have received the prize. The first woman winner was Elinor Ostrom in 2009.
American have received about half of the Nobel Prizes for economics.
I'm Mario Ritter.
1.financial decisions 金融政策
He has never flinched from harsh financial decisions.
2.lack of 缺乏
I was amazed by their discourtesy and lack of professionalism.
3.lead to 导致
A lack of prudence may lead to financial problems.
4.financial crisis 金融危机
We must pull our company out of the financial crisis as soon as possible.
5.He found that people can accept increasing prices if the costs of many things are going up.
going up 上涨
He noticed a new building going up near Whitaker Park.
Guns were blazing, flares going up and the sky was lit up all around.
6.Thaler received the prize partly for his research into why people often make irrational financial decisions.
partly for 部分原因
Partly for that reason, Europe's leaders do not have a great deal of leverage over Italy.
People read advertisements partly for information and partly because they are interesting.
美国经济学家理查德·塞勒（Richard Thaler）荣获2017年诺贝尔经济学奖 。
作为一名行为经济学家，塞勒的心血得到了认可 。他研究的是人们制定经济决策的原因 。
塞勒获得诺贝尔奖，部分归功于他对人们为何做出不理智的金融决策的研究 。周一，瑞典皇家科学院宣布了获得110万美元奖金的经济学奖得主 。
诺贝尔奖项委员会表示，塞勒探究了“有限理性、社会偏好和缺乏自我控制的后果” 。该委员会表示，塞勒的研究揭示出人类特性如何影响个人决策和金融市场动向 。
塞勒在经济学中发展出了“心理账户”的理论 。该理论描述了人们如何通过在脑海中构建不同的账户来简化金融决策 。
塞勒还发展出了一种“助推”理论 。该理论指出，一些不起眼的鼓励措施会影响人们做出更理智的决定 。他说应该允许人们自己做决定，而社会“应积极引导人们走向正确的方向 。”
塞勒对其他领域也感兴趣 。他还研究公平 。他发现，如果许多东西的成本都在上涨，那么人们可以接受价格增长 。但人们会强烈反对某公司因产品的需求上涨而抬高物价 。
塞勒被誉为行为经济学家的鼻祖之一 。他研究的领域曾不被人看好，不过近十年来受到经济学家们的青睐 。
1968年，为了纪念阿尔弗雷德·诺贝尔创立了诺贝尔经济学奖 。此后，有79人获得该奖项 。2009年埃莉诺·奥斯特罗姆成为首位获此殊荣的女性 。