Study: 2016 Warmest Year on Record
Last year, planet Earth was hotter than ever before. That is according to a report by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).
It says that 2016 marked the third year in a row of record warmth. NOAA scientists have kept records for the last 136 years.
The report says long-term global warming and an unusually strong El Ni?o weather pattern combined to make it a record hot year. El Ni?os are weather patterns that warm the Pacific Ocean. That puts a lot of heat into the atmosphere and raises temperatures. They helped raise extreme temperatures, dry conditions and heavy rains.
It also says high temperatures helped set fires in Alberta, Canada. Deadly heat and drought, or extremely dry conditions hit India, which resulted in a water crisis.
More than 450 scientists from nearly 60 countries contributed to the report, released on August 10th.
Deke Arndt is a co-author of the report. He spoke to VOA by Skype.
"It confirms what we know. We know we live in a warming world, we know that that world is going to continue to warm. We know that this is going to cause issues around the world."
Named the State of the Climate, NOAA says the report takes into account tens of thousands of measurements. They include global climate indicators, weather events, greenhouse gas emissions, sea levels, the saltiness of the oceans, snow cover and sea ice.
Greenhouse gases were the highest on record. Other climate numbers that were at their highest record include global surface temperatures, as well as sea surface temperatures. And, the global sea level average also rose to a new record high in 2016 - it was about 82 millimeters higher than observed in 1993.
Tropical cyclones were also up. There were 93 named cyclones in 2016. One number went down—the amount of Arctic sea ice. It was not good news. The most Arctic sea ice coverage in March 2016 was the smallest in 37 years.
NOAA's Arndt says there is little question about why the planet is warming.
"We can always refine the numbers on exactly what percent is coming, but the vast majority is coming from human activity. And that's very abundantly clear."
But this report is not in agreement with the Trump administration policy. Environmental Protection Agency chief Scott Pruitt says it is still debatable whether humans are responsible for global warming.
"I believe the ability to measure with precision the degree of human activity's effect on the climate is subject to more debate."
Pruitt's statements and the U.S. withdrawal from the Paris climate agreement goes against what many climate scientists in the U.S. believe.
The NOAA report came out days after The New York Times published a draft of a U.S. government report on climate. It said that the average temperature in the country has risen quickly and drastically since 1980. It also says that recent decades have been the warmest in the past 1,500 years.
This report was written by scientists from 13 federal agencies. It says that Americans are already feeling the result of climate change. It also says human activities are mainly responsible for climate change, and that there are no other explanations.
The report is part of the National Climate Assessment and is published every four years. The National Academy of Sciences has approved the study. The authors are waiting for the Trump administration to approve its release.
I'm Anne Ball.
1.greenhouse gas 温室气体
Light-duty vehicles also contribute significantly to greenhouse gas emissions, fuel use and air pollution.
2.climate change 气候变化
Carbon emissions exacerbate the global climate change problem.
3.human activities 人类活动
These animals became extinct because of climate changes and human activities.
4.ever before 从前；以前
Society is now much more diverse than ever before.
1.It says that 2016 marked the third year in a row of record warmth.
a row of 一排
The dead elms have been replaced by a row of saplings.
There is a row of trees at the line of demarcation between the two pieces of land.
2.Pruitt's statements and the U.S. withdrawal from the Paris climate agreement goes against what many climate scientists in the U.S. believe.
go against 不利于；违反
The prime minister will resign if the vote goes against him.
He didn't want to go against the wishes of the German government.
去年，地球迎来了史上最热的一年 。这是美国国家海洋和大气局(NOAA)的一份报告得出的结论 。
报告指出，2016年连续第三年创下高温纪录 。美国国家海洋和大气局科学家已经记录了136年来的地球气温 。
报告指出，长期的全球变暖、加上异常强烈的厄尔尼诺现象导致2016年成为记录以来最热的一年 。厄尔尼诺气候是指太平洋海水持续升温 。水温升高会向大气释放大量热量导致气温升高 。厄尔尼诺还会引发极端气候和旱涝灾害 。
研究还指出，高温容易导致加拿大亚伯达发生火灾 。极度炎热、干旱和极端干燥天气席卷印度，引发了水资源危机 。
德克·阿尔恩特（Deke Arndt）是作者之一 。他通过语音通话接受了VOA的采访 。
“我们了解的情况已经得到确认 。我们了解到人类生活在一个逐渐变暖的世界，这个世界还将继续变暖 。气候变暖将会为全球带来诸多问题 。”
美国国家海洋和大气局将该报告命名为《气候状况报告》，报告将上千种测量因素考虑在内 。包括全球气候指标、天气情况、温室气体排放量、海平面、海水含盐量、积雪量和海冰覆盖率等 。
温室气体排放量创历史新高 。包括地球表面温度和海平面温度等其他气候数据也达到历史最高 。2016年全球海平面平均水平上升至历史新高——比1993年的观测数据高出约82毫米 。
热带气旋也在增长 。2016年有93个命名的气旋 。北冰洋的海冰数量逐渐减少 。这不是好兆头 。2016年3月，多数北冰洋的海冰覆盖率达到37年来的最低水平 。
“我们可以精确计算出准确的数据变化，但是主要的因素是人类活动 。这点毋庸置疑 。”
但是这项报告与特朗普政府的政策并不一致 。环境保护局局长斯科特·普鲁伊特（Scott Pruitt）表示，人类活动是否是全球变暖的罪魁祸首尚存争议 。
“我认为，人们是否有能力精确测量人类活动对气候的影响，还需进一步论证 。”普鲁伊特的声明及美国退出巴黎气候协定与美国众多气候科学家的观点相违背 。
美国国家海洋和大气局发布这份报告前，《纽约时报》发布了一项关于气候的政府报告草案 。草案中指出，自1980年以来，美国的平均气温急剧上升 。最近几十年的气温创下1500年来的最高记录 。
这份报告由13个联邦机构的科学家共同撰写 。报告强调，美国民众已明显感觉到气候变化的影响 。报告还指出，人类活动是气候变化的主要原因，无需其他解释 。
这项报告是《国家气候评估报告》的一部分，每四年出版一次 。美国国家科学院批准了这项研究 。报告的作者正静待特朗普当局批准其发行 。