Heart Calcium Build-Up Increases Risk of Early Death
A new study suggests that even small amounts of calcium in the arteries of young people can predict a heart attack or death within 12 years.
Researchers say it was easy to recognize the calcium in the arteries, which carry blood from the heart through the body. They also say the findings can be a "call to action" for doctors and patients to begin taking preventative action.
Dr. Jeff Carr is an expert on hearts at Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Tennessee.
"Even if it's just one little dot or a very low what's called a calcium score are at markedly elevated risk. So if you have any amount of coronary calcium, your risk increases over the next 10 to 15 years by about 10 percent. If you have a lot, your risk increases significantly and your chance of dying over those next years is approximately 22 percent."
Dr. Carr was the lead writer of a report on the study, which was published in the journal JAMA Cardiology.
The study began in 1985. It involved about 5,000 people at four centers in the United States. The people were between 18 and 30 years of age at the time.
About 3,300 African-American and white young adults were given a computerized tomography (CT) scan as part of the study. Researchers used the CT images to learn if any of the subjects had atherosclerosis before the study began.
The other subjects were followed based on risk factors for a heart attack.
Researchers said they found evidence of atherosclerosis in about 30 percent of those who had the CT scan.
The researchers followed up on the group 12 years after the study began. At that time, doctors noted a higher-than-normal death rate among those with the calcium deposits.
Carr said it is not necessary to perform a CT scan on everyone to be able to predict their risk of death from a heart attack. He said a doctor can often predict that risk just by examining a person.
"Risk factors like blood pressure and cholesterol -- even when modestly elevated in early adult life in these people at high risk -- may provide (an) opportunity to identify them and treat risk factors more aggressively, and just be able to potentially lower the risk of future heart attacks that we saw over the past 15 years in the cohort."
Carr said people at risk of heart disease should consider taking medicines designed to lower high blood pressure and reduce cholesterol levels. Losing weight and stopping smoking also helps, he said. So does eating a lot of fruits and vegetables, and less red meat.
I'm Anna Mateo.
1.at the time 在那时；当时
I was not in Britain at the time.
2.at risk 处于危机
The crisis could well place the relationship at risk.
3.heart attack 心脏病
He died of a heart attack brought on by overwork.
4.small amounts of 微量的；少量的
Plants generally absorb and translocate relatively small amounts of arsenic into aboveground parts.
1.The other subjects were followed based on risk factors for a heart attack.
based on 基于
The study was based on data from 2,100 women.
Democracy is based on good will and mutual understanding.
2.At that time, doctors noted a higher-than-normal death rate among those with the calcium deposits.
death rate 死亡率
The reason that it causes the high death rate lies in the wide invasion and metastasis.
Can we eliminate cancer so as to reduce death rate?
研究人员指出，动脉将血液从心脏输往全身，其中的钙很容易被识别出来 。他们还表示，调查结果警醒医生和患者开始采取预防措施 。
杰夫.卡尔博士（Jeff Carr）是田纳西州范德堡大学医学中心心脏专家 。
“即使是少量的钙或钙化积分低也会使患病风险明显提高 。因此，如果你体内有少量冠状动脉钙，那么在未来10到15年内，你的患病风险将提高约10％ 。如果你体内有大量的冠状动脉钙，那么你的患病风险将大大提升，未来几年你的死亡率将提高约22％ 。
这一研究开始于1985年 。该研究包含了美国四处中心的约5000名受试者 。当时受试者的年龄在18到30岁之间 。
约3300名非裔美国人和年轻白人接受了计算机断层扫描（CT） 。研究人员可根据CT图像判断受试者此前是否患有动脉粥样硬化 。
研究人员在接下来的12年里跟踪受试者 。当时的医生已经注意到，有钙沉淀现象的患者其死亡率高于正常人 。
卡尔说，没有必要对每人都进行CT扫描，预测患者死于心脏病的风险 。他说，这一点医生通过检查即可得知 。
卡尔指出，有患心脏病风险的人应考虑服用降压和降低胆固醇的药物 。减肥和戒烟也会有所帮助 。因此一定要食用大量水果和蔬菜，尽量少吃红肉 。