South Korea Leads List of Life Expectancy Gains
A new study predicts that South Korean women will be the first group in the world to have an average lifespan of more than 90 years.
Researchers at Imperial College London and the World Health Organization studied the lifespans of people in 35 industrialized countries. Their findings suggest that by 2030 people will be living longer. It also says the gap between men and women could start to close in most countries.
South Koreans living the longest
Women are predicted to live longer lives than men in all countries. Behind South Korean women, women in France, Japan, Spain and Switzerland are expected, on average, to live to age 88.
The life expectancy of South Korean men is expected to increase, but only to about age 84. In Australia, Switzerland, Canada and the Netherlands, men also are expected to live to about 84 on average.
According to the study, the increase in life expectancy in South Korea was caused by decreases in deaths from infections and long-term diseases in children and adults. The study says gains in life expectancy are a result of economic improvements in South Korea.
These gains have led to improved youth nutrition, increased access to primary and secondary health care, and the development of new medical technologies. South Koreans also have a lower body-mass index and blood pressure than people in most western countries, and lower smoking in women.
The U.S. is behind other developed countries
While women and men in South Korea led the study, Americans continued to have one of the lower life expectancies among developed countries.
Macedonia had the lowest life expectancy for women at nearly 78 years, and Serbia for men at about 73 years.
Men and women in the U.S. are predicted to have life expectancies of 80 and 83 years, about the same as Mexico and Croatia.
The writers of the study said life expectancy increases were smaller partly because of a lack of universal health care in the United States. The study also said problems such as relatively high child and maternal mortality rates, and high rates of homicide and obesity were to blame.
Scientists once thought that a life expectancy beyond 90 years was impossible. However gains in medicine, combined with improved social programs, are helping people live longer lives.
These improvements are also happening in countries where people already live a long time, according to the study's lead researcher, Majid Ezzati of Imperial College London.
"I can imagine that there is a limit, but we are still very far from it,'' he said. Ezzati estimated that people would eventually survive on average to at least 110 or 120 years.
The study says that obesity, tobacco use and harmful alcohol use are the leading causes of death in adults. However, having an effective health care system is important for a country to improve life expectancy. The survey noted the good effects of having universal health-care coverage.
The study said that, with longer life expectancy, there will also be new pressures on health and social services. The number of people needing long-term care in their old age will increase, which will put stress on available facilities giving this care. The study suggests that either more facilities will need to be built, or health care may need to be provided at home.
There will also be additional pressure on pensions and social security. These are programs that provide money to people after they retire from work.
With people living longer, they will require more pension or social security payments than earlier generations. The study suggests that either the retirement age will need to be increased or plans will need to put in place to transition workers to retirement at a later age.
I'm Phil Dierking.
1.average life 平均寿命
Melopsitiacus undelafusp average life expectancy is7 years.
2.social security 社会保障
A large majority of elderly Americans depend solely on social security income.
3.on average 平均；普通
American shares rose, on average, by 38%
4.health care 卫生保障
He's already solicited their support on health care reform.
1.The writers of the study said life expectancy increases were smaller partly because of a lack of universal health care in the United States.
life expectancy 预期寿命
They had longer life expectancies than their parents.
These countries also enjoy higher social mobility, life expectancy and life satisfaction than the US.
2.The study suggests that either the retirement age will need to be increased or plans will need to put in place to transition workers to retirement at a later age.
put in place 落实到位
They're offended by the elaborate security measures the police have put in place.
The restrictions have been put in place, after a five-day national strike.
伦敦帝国理工学院和世界卫生组织的研究人员合作研究了35个工业化国家的人均寿命 。研究结果表明，到2030年，人们的平均寿命将会延长 。大多数国家的男女寿命差距可能会消除 。
在调查的全部国家中，女性预期寿命普遍超过男性 。而仅次于韩国之后的法国，日本，西班牙和瑞士的女性平均寿命为88岁 。
韩国男性预期寿命有望达到84岁 。澳大利亚，瑞士，加拿大和荷兰的男性平均寿命约为84岁 。
研究报告分析，韩国预期寿命的增加归因于由感染及长期疾病引起的儿童、成年人死亡数量的减少 。研究表明，预期寿命的增长与韩国经济改善息息相关 。
这些条件的改善使青少年营养良好，增加了获得初级和二级卫生保健的机会以及医学技术的发展 。韩国人的体重系数和血压低于西方大多数国家，女性烟民的比例也较少 。
该研究作者表示，美国预期寿命增幅较小，某种程度上是缺乏全民医疗保健 。该研究还指出，另一个原因是儿童和产妇死亡率相对较高，凶杀率和肥胖率也居高不下 。
科学家曾以为人口预期寿命的上限是90岁 。然而，医疗技术的进步加之社会保障的完善，使人类的预期寿命不断增长 。
该研究的首席研究员——伦敦帝国学院的Majid Ezzati表示，这些情况也发生于在一个国家生活了很长时间的人们身上 。
“可以想象，我们距离那个极限还十分地遥远” 。Ezzati预测，人类预期的平均寿命可达到110或120年 。
研究表明，肥胖，吸烟和酗酒是导致成年人死亡的主要因素 。然而，有效的保健系统对于提高一个国家的预期寿命来说至关重要 。研究专门指出全民医疗保险的益处 。
研究报告指出，人们寿命延长导致卫生和社会服务领域出现新的压力 。需要长期护理的老年人口增加，将造成提供此类护理服务的现有设施压力变大 。研究建议，可以建设更多的护理设施或在家里提供医疗保健服务 。
这种现象也会给养老金和社会保障领域带来附加压力 。这些项目都是为退休的老人提供经济来源 。
随着人类寿命延长，养老金或社会保障支出也将远超以往 。研究建议称可延迟退休年龄或设立相关计划，让人们转变退休观念 。