Tanzanian Rats Help in Identifying Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide.
It killed about 2,000,000 people last year.
TB is an infectious bacterial disease that usually attacks the lungs. If the number of deaths from TB is to be reduced, doctors must be able to accurately diagnose and quickly treat patients.
That can be difficult in developing countries, but a health center in Tanzania is now using trained animals to find the bacterium in people.
Giant Pouched Rats are able to smell tuberculosis germs in human saliva. When they do, they stop moving. They wait for food from their trainer.
Fidelis John is one of the rat trainers. He works for a group called APOPO. He says the rats have a stronger sense of smell than other animals and can easily recognize tuberculosis.
Health workers now use a 100-year-old method to diagnose TB. It is not as effective as the rats. Often, health care workers have trouble identifying the disease in patients. This can cause TB to spread.
Dr. Richard Banda works in Tanzania. He is the acting country representative for the World Health Organization.
Dr. Banda says the WHO estimates that only a third of people with TB are diagnosed as being infected. Thirty thousand people die from the disease every year in Tanzania. That is about 82 people a day.
APOPO believes their rats -- which are native to Tanzania -- are an effective way to help solve the problem of TB misdiagnosis.
Trainer John agrees.
"Rat(s) can use the time in between 10 and 20 minutes to finish evaluating 100 samples -- a task that would have taken a lab technician a time of 4 to 5 days to finish that job."
After the rats complete their investigation, laboratory workers test samples. ab results are returned to hospitals within 24 hours, so those found to be infected can quickly begin medical treatment.
APOPO says since the rats have been used, they have identified thousands of infections that were missed with traditional tests.
The group is planning to use the rats in other countries, and train them to find other diseases.
I'm Caty Weaver.
1.developing countries 发展中国家
The debate will pit the industrial North against developing countries in the South.
2.health center 健康中心
The health center has a Kangaroo Clinic, a special area for teaching this method.
3.medical treatment 治疗；医疗
Several police officers received medical treatment for cuts and bruises.
4.die from 死于
Forty-thousand children a day die from preventable diseases
1.It is not as effective as the rats.
as effective as 和...一样有效
It was said that she was as effective as god, bringing the dying back to life.
Injuring all of a man's ten fingers is not as effective as chopping off one.
2.Often, health care workers have trouble identifying the disease in patients.
have trouble (in) doing 做某事有困难
You could ask the teacher for help when you have trouble in learning English.
I have trouble in understanding the expressions on people's faces.
肺结核是一种感染性细菌性疾病，通常会感染肺部 。想要降低肺结核的死亡人数，医生须准确诊断并快速治疗病患 。
巨型老鼠可以闻出人体唾液中的肺结核病菌 。当发现肺结核病菌时，它们就会停止动作 。它们会等待训练员奖励食物 。
菲德里斯·约翰（Fidelis John）是一名驯鼠师 。他在一家名为APOPO的组织工作 。他表示，与其他动物相比，老鼠的嗅觉更加灵敏，能够轻易发现肺结核病菌 。
如今，医务人员仍然使用一百年前的方法诊断肺结核 。这种方法的效率远低于老鼠诊断 。医务人员难以诊断出病患的病情 。这导致肺结核不断扩散 。
理查德·班达（Richard Banda）医生在坦桑尼亚工作 。他是世界卫生组织的代理国代表 。
班达称，据世界卫生组织预计，只有三分之一的肺结核患者能被确诊 。每年，坦桑尼亚有三万人死于肺结核 。每天约82人因肺结核死亡 。
老鼠检测结束后，实验人员会检测样本 。实验结果在24小时内返送医院，感染的病人可以快速得到治疗 。