Hot Drinks Linked to Cancer
From VOA Learning English, this is the Health and Lifestyle report.
Next time you make yourself a hot cup of tea or coffee, you might want to let it cool down a bit before drinking.
Researchers say letting your hot drinks cool off could help you avoid some kinds of cancer.
In fact, the United Nations' cancer research agency decided to list hot drinks with lead, gasoline and exhaust fumes as "possibly carcinogenic." In other words, each one could cause cancer.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) is part of the World Health Organization (WHO). The IARC published the findings in the medical journal Lancet Oncology.
Researchers at IARC found evidence that drinks at temperatures above 65 degrees Celsius, when swallowed, can cause cancer of the esophagus.
The researchers examined findings from other studies where tea and coffee were often served at 70 degrees Celsius or above. Those studies were completed in Iran, China and South America.
In developed countries, health experts have linked esophageal cancer to smoking and alcoholic drinks. However, this form of cancer is more common in areas where people drink beverages at very high temperatures.
In Europe and the United States, many people drink coffee and tea at temperatures around 60 degrees Celsius. And they often add milk which lowers the temperature considerably.
However, tea-drinkers in Iran and mate-drinkers in South America often enjoy their beverages at closer to 70 degrees Celsius. mate is a tea-like brew made by steeping the leaves of the yerba mate plant in near-boiling water.
The researchers note that South Americans not only drink their mate very hot, they also drink it through a metal straw. This sends the scalding liquid directly into the throat.
The findings, however, are good news for coffee drinkers.
In 1991, the World Health Organization listed coffee as "possibly carcinogenic." WHO officials have since changed their position on that listing. They now suggest that the temperature of your hot drink is a greater risk factor than the actual drink itself.
Christopher Wild is the director of the IARC. When he spoke with the AFP news agency, he said the results "suggest that drinking very hot beverages is one probable cause of esophageal cancer and that it is the temperature, rather than the drinks themselves, that appears to be responsible."
The National Coffee Association called the change "great news for coffee drinkers."
But how common is esophageal cancer? Worldwide, it is the eighth most common cancer. Cancer of the esophagus killed about 400,000 people in 2012.
I'm Anna Matteo.
1.cool down 冷却；平静
Don't forget to warm up and cool down for intervals.
2.hot drink 热饮
After a long cold walk I was thankful for a hot drink.
3.exhaust fumes 废气
The city's streets are filthy and choked with exhaust fumes.
4.rather than 而不是
The zoo needed better management rather than more money.
1.WHO officials have since changed their position on that listing.
changed one'sposition 改变立场
Mr Obama has changed his position on other aspects of health reform.
On trade, the president changed his position, and announced he would wholeheartedly support NAFTA as it stood.
2.In other words, each one could cause cancer.
In other words 换言之
In other words, you need to succinctly state what your application does.
In other words, we have to build different corporate cultures and ways of working.
其实，联合国癌症研究机构决定将热饮与铅、汽油及废气一同列入“潜在致癌”的名单中 。也就是说，这些东西都存在诱发癌症的风险 。
国际癌症研究机构（IARC）是世界卫生组织的分支 。国际癌症研究机构将这一研究成果刊登在《柳叶刀肿瘤学》杂志上 。
研究人员检验了其它研究的结果，这些研究称，茶和咖啡通常都是在不低于70度的情况下被端上桌的 。这些研究是在伊朗、中国和南美洲完成的 。
发达国家的卫生专家认为食道癌与吸烟、饮酒有关 。但是食道癌在习惯饮用高温饮料的地区更为常见 。
在欧洲和美国，很多人都会饮用60度左右的咖啡和茶 。而且他们会往饮品中添加牛奶来降低温度 。
然而，伊朗的茶爱好者与南美洲马黛茶爱好者通常会饮用70摄氏度左右的茶饮 。马黛茶是一种将巴拉圭叶子浸泡在沸水中的类似于茶的饮品 。
研究人员指出，南美洲人不但喝高温的马黛茶，还用金属吸管饮用 。通过吸管让热饮直达喉咙 。
1991年，世界卫生组织将咖啡列入“潜在致癌”的名单中，但是之后又将咖啡从“潜在致癌物”名单中剔除 。如今，他们声称饮品温度的危害远大于饮品本身 。
克里斯托弗·维尔德（Christopher Wild）是国际癌症研究机构的主管 。他对AFP通讯社称，研究结果表明，“饮用高温饮品可能引发食道癌，原因在于温度而不在于饮品本身，这一点似乎是可信的 。”
食道癌究竟有多常见？食道癌是全球第八大常见癌症 。2012年，约40万患者死于食道癌 。