How Much Medical Information Must Presidential Candidates Release?
Recent stories about American presidential candidates have raised questions about how much candidates should say about their medical history while running for office.
In the United States, no law requires presidential candidates or presidents to release medical records or information about their health to the public. But one recent study of likely voters found that 86 percent of those questioned said a candidate's health is important to their vote.
Most presidential candidates are over age 50. This issue affects somewhat younger candidates, too.
John F. Kennedy was the youngest person to be elected U.S. president. He was 43 years old when he won the election of 1960. Kennedy had Addison's disease and back pain that were treated with drugs before he was elected. This information was not released to the public.
In 1932, Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected president with a clear disability: He had polio. Few photographs survived of Roosevelt sitting in his wheelchair. Late in his presidency, he also suffered from heart disease. The public never heard about his heart problems until Roosevelt died, just months into his fourth term in office.
The U.S. Constitution is clear that once a president has died, the vice president takes office. But questions have arisen throughout American history about what happens when a president is unable to carry out his or her duties, like when under anesthesia. Or the president could be in a coma and unable to communicate.
Following Kennedy's death, Congress passed the 25th Amendment to the constitution. That amendment states, in part, that when a president is incapacitated, the vice president and members of the president's cabinet can act. They can make a formal declaration to the leaders of the Senate and House that the president is unable to carry out his duties.
The vice president then immediately can act for the president.
But the amendment has never been used, even when former President Ronald Reagan was shot in 1981.
President Barack Obama has released reports of his physical examinations periodically throughout his presidency and once during his campaign. He was not legally required to do so. This move has become a tradition for presidents in the years since the passing of the 25th Amendment.
In 2008, Obama defeated U.S. Senator John McCain for the presidency. During the election campaign, McCain released more than 1,000 pages of his medical records to the public. McCain was 72 years old at the time.
I'm Bryan Lynn.
1.presidential candidates 总统候选人
The presidential candidates went for each other in the papers.
2.medical records 医疗记录
More than one-third of the population of the Netherlands have their medical records computerised.
3.heart disease 心脏疾病
There's a high incidence of heart disease there.
4.in office 执政；在位
The company continued him in office for another year.
1.Late in his presidency, he also suffered from heart disease.
suffered from 经历；饱受
I merely told him that I suffered from nightmares.
Most parts of African countries have suffered from drought in recent years.
2.But questions have arisen throughout American history about what happens when a president is unable to carry out his or her duties, like when under anesthesia.
carry out 实施；履行
He would let her manage everything and carry out all her notions.
He hasn't the funds to carry out his design.
其实，美国法律并没有要求总统（总统候选人）公开个人医疗记录或医疗信息 。但最近一项民意调查显示，86％的人认为，总统候选人的健康状况是选民投票的关键因素 。
多数总统候选人已年逾50 。这个问题同样困扰着一些年轻的候选人 。
肯尼迪是史上最年轻的美国总统 。1960年，年仅43岁的他在大选中获胜 。然而，在当选前，肯尼迪曾因阿狄森氏病和背部疼痛接受药物治疗 。但该信息未向告知公众 。
1932年，身体存在明显残疾的富兰克林·罗斯福当选美国总统：他是小儿麻痹症患者 。现仍存有几张罗斯福坐在轮椅上的照片 。总统任期结束时，他还饱受心脏病的困扰 。第四个任期开始没几个月，罗斯福就去世了，公众才知晓他患有严重的心脏病 。
美国宪法明确规定，若总统去世，副总统立即接任 。历来，全美上下都在为一个问题所苦恼：若总统因昏迷不醒而无法履行其总统职责时该怎么办 。
肯尼迪离世后，国会通过了第25次宪法修正案 。该修正案规定，从某种程度上讲，当总统无法履行职务时，副总统及总统内阁的成员可代为执政 。他们可以就总统无法履行其职责向参议院和众议院提交一份正式声明 。
奥巴马总统在任期时会定期发布其体检报告，他在竞选期间也发布过一次 。虽然并没有法律规定要这样做 。第25次修正案以来，这一举动成为总统的一项传统 。
2008年，奥巴马战胜参议员约翰·麦凯恩当选美国总统 。在竞选过程中，麦凯恩向公众公布了1000多页个人病历 。当时的麦凯恩已经72岁 。