VOA常速英语(翻译+字幕+讲解):研究者寻找降低早产率的干预措施
日期:2014-11-20 09:41

(单词翻译:单击)

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听力文本

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Complications from preterm births now outrank all other causes of death for young children. Of the more than 6.3 million deaths of kids under age five in 2013, more than one million resulted from preterm problems.

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The new study was released November 17, World Prematurity Day, and appears in The Lancet medical journal. It’s a collaborative effort by researchers from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and the World Health Organization.

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The vast majority the deaths from direct complications of preterm births occurred within the first 28 days of life – with an additional 125,000 deaths occurring between one month and five years.

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Dr. Andres de Francisco, interim executive director of the Geneva-based Partnership for Maternal Newborn and Child Health, said, “Over the last few years the proportion of deaths due to preterm births has been increasing. The reason for this is that we do not really have major interventions in place to avoid premature births -- and second, to manage them in most communities where they occur.”

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He said preterm birth complications are a worldwide problem.

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“We have countries in Africa, for example – Nigeria – or in Asia -- India and Pakistan -- that have extremely high numbers of kids that are dying related to preterm births. But this is not only a problem in developing countries," de Francisco said. "This is also a problem that affects developed countries, as well.”

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India actually tops the list, followed by Nigeria, Pakistan, the DRC, China, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Ethiopia, Angola and Kenya. Researchers warn the Ebola outbreak in West Africa raises the risk of preterm complications in the affected countries.

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The rise in deaths from preterm birth complications actually coincides with a dramatic decline in the worldwide mortality rate of children under five.

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“Mortality has been reducing by about 3.9 percent per year, which is a very impressive reduction of mortality -- and is due to a lot of interventions that we have in stock, including decreasing the mortality due to infectious diseases, such as pneumonia and diarrhea, malaria, among others,” de Francisco said.

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Some of the interventions credited for the mortality rate decline include vaccines, bed nets, antibiotics, anti-malarial and HIV treatments.

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But de Francisco said the mortality rate for premature babies has decreased by a much smaller rate of 2 percent a year. A big part of the reason, he says, is a lack of adequate interventions. And, right now, it’s not clear what the best interventions are, aside from addressing obesity and high blood pressure or hypertension.

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The study said for the most part it’s not fully known what triggers pre-term labor – and about half of pre-term births occur spontaneously.

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“This cause of mortality needs to be studied much more specifically and in a much more focused way. Because if we don’t have the causes – if we don’t have the factors – pregnancy is going to end in a premature birth. And this needs to be the focus of intensive research,” de Francisco said.

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Some $250 million worth of intensive research is getting underway through four major initiatives: the Global Coalition to Advance Preterm Birth Research; the March of Dimes; the University of California at San Francisco’s Preterm Birth Initiative; and the Global Alliance to Prevent Prematurity and Stillbirth.

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“If we are able to support these research programs, within the next five years or so, we will be able to have interventions that are going to contribute to the reduction of mortality in these very small babies,” he said.

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Researchers also will study poverty, nutrition, pollution and stress. And they’ll try to solve a mystery: why do Somali women living in the United States have “very low rates of premature births, while most black women in the U.S. have very high rates.”

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译文属可可原创,仅供学习交流使用,未经许可请勿转载)kavS8pIy(yy;m

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词汇解释

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1.outrank vt. 地位高于,级别高于;居…之上位

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Peanuts now outrank cotton as the chief crop.
如今花生是比棉花更重要的主要产品O^syu2;;M)#

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2.preterm n. 【医学】早产;早产婴儿

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Intrauterine infection is a major cause of preterm delivery.
宫内感染是早产发生的重要原因.-M;5(G2CR@=R*

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3.complication n. 并发症;复杂;复杂化;混乱

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Blindness is a common complication of diabetes.
失明是糖尿病常有的一种并发症z56_N*Uc0@

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4.hypertension n. 高血压;过度紧张

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Obesity correlates with increased risk for hypertension and stroke.
肥胖会增加高血压和中风发作的几率VUTQdet#3PSHew9-%)+

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5.Stillbirth n. 死产

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Neonatal death and stillbirth are the most severe adverse pregnancy outcomes.
死胎和新生儿死亡是最严重的妊娠不良结局L&aa,(lgP8EuWHKyb

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内容解析

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1.Some of the interventions credited for the mortality rate decline include vaccines, bed nets, antibiotics, anti-malarial and HIV treatments.

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credit for 因…值得受到称赞

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Some of the credit for her relaxed manner must go to Andy.
她会如此放松,一部分应该归功于安迪RZQKemsb__jd

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He is credited for his excellent performance on the screen.
他因出色的荧屏表演而赢得称赞%#_.kuHpeHp(U|

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参考译文

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早产并发症是导致婴儿死亡的最主要原因,在2013年死亡的630多万五岁以下儿童中,有100多万死于与早产相关问题wagvG0TgLszo1v_Gmip

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这份新研究发表在11月17—世界早产日的《柳叶刀》医学杂志上,是约翰斯霍普金斯彭博公共卫生学院、伦敦卫生及热带医学学院和世界卫生组织集体努力的结果K;~*Gs_[%od

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早产相关直接并发症导致的死亡中,绝大多数发生在出生的28天之内,另外12.5万个死亡病例发生在满月和5岁之间mO6V0PgP]|a59JCoRS

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弗朗西斯科·安德烈斯博士是总部在日内瓦的孕产妇、新生儿和儿童健康伙伴关系临时执行理事,他说,“过去几年里,早产引发死亡的比例在增加,其原因是我们缺乏重要的干预手段来避免早产,第二,在大多数社区,我们未能在早产发生时解决这一问题4oiLXwt88#0(]vO~ucx6。”

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他说早产并发症是全球性问题efvZx3pIY^;Bct6Y

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“在尼日利亚等非洲国家或亚洲的印度和巴基斯坦,死于早产相关问题儿童数量相当高ZUr@BrN+@NW)2)u。这不仅是发展中国家的问题,发达国家也存在这一问题5C[R*P_XqYmP0j7。”

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印度是问题最严重的国家,其次是尼日利亚、巴基斯坦、刚果民主共和国、中国、孟加拉国、印尼、埃塞俄比亚、安哥拉和肯尼亚.Mho4T]aTdi4w3b。研究者警告说,西非的埃博拉爆发增加了受感染国家出现早产并发症的危险A_0azwY[R1LZQ)Q.y|At

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与并发生相关死亡增加同时存在的,是全球范围内五岁以下儿童死亡率的提高ZAkZqJ|]YJ

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“每年的死亡率都会下降大约3.9%,这是死亡率减少方面很大的进步,这是因为我们已经拥有的大量干预手段,包括减少感染病引发的死亡,比如肺炎、腹泻、疟疾等eGlPMu2Ej!M9FK=Nqk。”

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能降低死亡率的其他干预手段还包括疫苗、床帐、抗生素、抗疟疾和HIV治疗手段K[gKMthGBn-,7,upDM7x

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但安德烈斯博士说,早产儿死亡率每年只降低了2%,他说这很大是因为缺少足够的干预手段wrU~RRd4)hZ.NAjD#m7。目前,除了解决肥胖、高血压外,尚不清楚什么是最好的干预手段Yuy5C(tL6*goslytDld

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这份研究称,在很大程度上尚不清楚导致提前分娩的原因,在一半的情况下,早产和提前分娩同时发生a&5nHU7mkh

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“需要对死亡原因进行更具体、更详细的研究,因为如果我们不知道原因,没有必要的手段,那么怀孕的结果就是早产,这就需要进行详细的研究a^MI;eQWp6~sh。”

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目前正在进行的四个重大项目涉资大约2.5亿美元,这几个项目是:全球推进早产研究联盟、美国畸形儿基金会、加州大学旧金山早产项目,以及全球预防早产和死胎联盟wE5Zrzu7zkOx

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“如果我们能支持这些研究项目,那么在大约五年内,我们就能拥有减少婴儿死亡率的干预手段vs!3NPF[T7IQ#M5WD.9[。”

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研究者还将研究贫困、营养、污染和压力问题,他们还将揭开一个神秘问题:为何生活在美国的索马里妇女的早产率很低,而美国的大多数黑人妇女早产率很高HRKa@PL^Tw-8bv,nqg

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重点单词
  • complicationn. 复杂,并发症,纠纷
  • deliveryn. 递送,交付,分娩
  • impressiveadj. 给人深刻印象的
  • creditn. 信用,荣誉,贷款,学分,赞扬,赊欠,贷方 (复)c
  • executiveadj. 行政的,决策的,经营的,[计算机]执行指令 n
  • collaborativeadj. 合作的,协作的
  • severeadj. 剧烈的,严重的,严峻的,严厉的,严格的
  • prematureadj. 提前的,过早的,早产的 n. 早产儿,早熟
  • hypertensionn. 高血压,过度紧张
  • preventv. 预防,防止