干细胞的作用
日期:2022-05-15 10:00

(单词翻译:单击)

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Stem Cells

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干细胞

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When hearing the two words together: 'stem cells', most of us would think of cells residing inside the stem of plants.

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当我们听到干细胞这两个词连在一起的时候,我们大多数人都会想到植物根茎中的细胞;te)cFp69T6v8S&O)Sml

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But in reality, stem cells are cells that divide to produce specialized other cells in order to replace the worn out ones and maintain the homeostasis.

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但实际上,干细胞是分裂产生专门的其他细胞的细胞,以取代磨损的细胞并维持体内平衡t0hjtHi^ri@

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Think of it like a branch of a tree, on which leaves, fruits, and small branches emerge, stem cells work just as similar.

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把它想象成树枝,在树枝上长出叶子、果实和小树枝,干细胞的工作原理是一样的wS(_;+1Q.vYShsH[P

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Specialized cells are differentiated from its precursor stem cells to maintain the body's internal environment.

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特化细胞由其前体干细胞分化而来,以维持机体的内部环境;,]filWB85T)Z7IN,F

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Until now, two kinds of stem cells of human sources have been known: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells.

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目前已知的人类干细胞有两种:胚胎干细胞和成体干细胞,cGu]eMjVC(EA*v

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Embryonic stem cell has the ability to differentiate into any necessary type of body cells, while adult stem cell has limited differentiation of cells specific only to its tissue origin.

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胚胎干细胞有能力分化为任何必要类型的身体细胞,而成体干细胞的分化仅限于其组织来源的细胞7RsHYxgOdnc~lSok

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To avoid the ethical issue in research, embryonic stem cell can be recreated by replacing the egg cell's haploid genome with adult's diploid genome, as in the case of the cloned sheep, Dolly, or by introducing several iPS genes into an adult skin cell.

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为了避免研究中的伦理问题,可以通过用成人的二倍体基因组取代卵细胞的单倍体基因组来重建胚胎干细胞,就像克隆绵羊多莉一样,或者通过将诱导多能性基因导入成人皮肤细胞来重建胚胎干细胞%PW,h=TU%dbSJ!Yhal

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The most common example a biology student could give of adult stem cell is that of blood cells.

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生物学专业的学生给出的最常见的成体干细胞的例子是血细胞HCKUZWB2vZlgK]_I0(i#

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If we are hiking on the top of a snowy mountain, the rising demand for oxygen from our body is met as soon as our kidney responds by secreting a type of hormone into the blood.

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如果我们在雪山的山顶上徒步旅行,当我们的肾脏通过向血液中分泌一种激素而做出反应时,我们身体对氧气不断增加的需求就会得到满足v=r=W6c*r9u%S6JvH

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This particular hormone sends a signal to bone marrow for the differentiation of stem cells into more red blood cells to fulfill our body's need.

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这种特殊的激素向骨髓发出信号,促使干细胞分化为更多的红细胞,以满足我们身体的需求~n&|*X(v*XOQw.LX

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Stem cells are also being cultured to create skin that can be grafted on burned bruises.

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干细胞也可以被培养成皮肤,可以移植到烧伤后瘀伤的皮肤上o#9bahG=)LEl062w_,kQ

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Another example of cultured stem cell is cultured meat.

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另一个培养干细胞的例子是培养肉PDKja|jVTf1DnbNERJu

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The meat grown in a lab may be considerably more beneficial to our health and environment than conventional meat.

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在实验室里培养的肉可能比传统的肉对我们的健康和环境更有利4Ps0RZ3P.SDP

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In addition, plants are also possible to be created in labs by providing a specific amount of nutrients and growth factors for the undifferentiated, non-specialized stem cells, to start generating shoots and roots.

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此外,通过为未分化的、非特化的干细胞提供特定数量的营养物质和生长因子,在实验室中创造出植物,可以产生芽和根4)m.0,To.cM

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