为什么电动汽车不能拯救我们?(下)
日期:2022-05-14 09:52

(单词翻译:单击)

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In Marvel’s blockbuster hit, Black Panther, there’s a brief shot that gives a glimpse of what clean and accessible transportation looks like.

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在漫威的大热影片《黑豹》中,有一小段镜头让我们得以一窥清洁便捷的交通工具是什么样子p5C6W%z@GSN]&&K+

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Here we see the bustling Wakanda market with a high-tech tram floating through the masses of people.

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我们看到熙熙攘攘的瓦坎达小商品市场中,有一辆高科技有轨电车飘然穿过人群lK1ULyf+XSOwlgWpS!2

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Not a single car in sight.

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画面中没有一辆车g%,)x[VkAPcWfdw

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While the electric car might be greener than the gas-powered car, we need to be asking ourselves larger questions like what is the most accessible, most just form of transportation?

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虽然电动汽车可能比燃气车更环保,但我们需要问自己更重大的问题,比如什么是最方便、最公正的交通方式?

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How can we get the most people from A to B without significant extraction and electricity demand?

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在没有大量开采和电力需求的情况下,如何能将最多的人从一个地方转移到另一个地方?

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Most often the answer to those questions is free, electrified, and most importantly, extensive public transportation systems.

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这些问题的答案往往是免费的、电气化的,最重要的是四通八达的公共交通系统LLUokoVFEx%df&PwQO

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Public transportation can fundamentally change a city, and ultimately our relationship with cars.

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公共交通可以从根本上改变一座城市,最终改变我们与汽车的关系4E|o=LAR!N4I

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And if done well it has the potential to transport millions of people with a significantly smaller carbon footprint, reduce air pollution, increase the mobility of low-income folks and decrease traffic and traffic-related deaths.

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如果做得好,它有可能以少得多的碳足迹运送数百万人,减少空气污染,提高低收入人群的流动性,并降低交通及交通相关死亡人数PiD)Hfu3Mff@

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In Tokyo, the subway is king.

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在东京,地铁是王道^eRAzV-v1[

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Every day, over 8 million people ride their extensive public rail system.

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每天有800多万人乘坐四通八达的公共轨道交通系统AHY5LmjgFX63_A6FPlnR

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For a massive city like Tokyo this is a significant achievement, especially because electrified subway systems have a small carbon footprint per passenger compared to single-passenger cars.

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对于东京这样的大城市来说,这是一项重大的成就,特别是因为与单人汽车相比,电气化地铁系统内每位乘客的碳足迹较小BpG]2Bn2rk

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One 2013 life cycle assessment of the Los Angeles light rail lines found that they emit significantly less carbon dioxide per passenger over their lifetime, with the bulk of emissions stemming from the concrete needed to construct such a system, while another study found that a fully packed diesel buses might emit just over 50 grams of carbon dioxide per passenger-mile.

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2013年对洛杉矶轻轨线路进行的一项生命周期评估发现,在其整个生命周期中,每名乘客的二氧化碳排放量大幅减少,其中大部分排放源于搭建这样一个系统所需的混凝土,而另一项研究显示,满载的柴油公交车每乘客英里可能只排放略高于50克的二氧化碳).HAl~R!EX%xd)+

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And what’s important to note is that these numbers drop when more people take public transportation and when the electric grid moves towards cleaner energy.

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要记住的重要一点是,如果更多人乘坐公共交通,以及电网转向更清洁的能源,这些数字会下降agAgSZXK!e*@G9kv8!

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Indeed, a recent study of electric buses in Trondheim, Norway found that electrifying buses can reduce their carbon footprint by 52%.

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事实上,对挪威特隆赫姆电动公交车进行的一项最新研究发现,将电动公交车电气化可以减少52%的碳足迹tIDa4g=Au%td-KObju)

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In addition, the material demands are much less per person for buses and trains.

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此外,公交车和火车的人均物质需求也要低得多b5R-KZf=*;!hGlsJCn

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So, if instead of switching to electric cars, we embrace electrified transportation, our demand for energy and materials would significantly decrease.

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因此,如果我们不是改用电动汽车,而是采纳电气化交通,那么我们对能源和材料的需求将显著减少&8u13-Pee1

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But it’s not as simple as just getting rid of your car and taking the bus instead, there are a number of obstacles that make public transportation unappealing for many.

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但这并不是把私家车扔掉转而坐公交车那么简单,由于许多阻碍,乘坐公共交通对很多人而言没有吸引力,b9P7SvlOi

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Cost is a large one, many metros and bus fares are priced in the $2 to $5 range for a single trip, which if you only occasionally use the metro is not too bad, but if you commute on the train multiple times a day it certainly adds up.

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成本是很大的阻碍,许多地铁和公交车的单程票价都在2到5美元之间,如果你只是偶尔坐地铁,这不算太糟,但如果你每天多次坐地铁通勤,成本肯定会增加wzYR@oa6o;dS

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There are already cities that have done away with metro fares.

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已经有一些城市取消了地铁票价fNNu@Ny~ZGv^e~8#.pfz

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When the city of Tallinn in Estonia made all public transportation rides free, they saw a 14% increase in ridership after one year, with evidence that low-income folks were more mobile.

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当爱沙尼亚的塔林市的公共交通工具改为全部免费乘坐时,该市发现一年后乘客量增加了14%,且有证据表明,低收入人群的流动性更高*hs;mQ-Ap+

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Unfortunately, traffic congestion didn’t budge and the increase in ridership mainly came from people who would have biked or walked otherwise.

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不幸的是,交通拥堵并没有缓解,而且增加的乘客主要是本来就骑自行车或步行的人_G1UayA[-&W0N#_M

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So, making public transportation free is just one part of the puzzle, in order to foster a transition away from cars, train and bus lines must also be convenient and extensive.

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因此,免费公共交通只是难题的一部分,为了摆脱汽车,促进过渡,火车和公共汽车线路还必须方便乘坐、四通八达92c=jE+Fb(=

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This means buses and trains that actually run on time and extremely often (like every five minutes).

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也就是说公交车和火车要实际上准时运行,而且车次非常频繁(比如每五分钟一次)!LtoL4y1Ep=r25

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It means paying transit jobs well, so that there are plenty of people running and maintaining the system.

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这意味着要为运输工作提供高薪,这样就会有很多人运行并维护系统%|H+5I61@K+nW!jcJ^F*

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It means public transportation in all neighborhoods, not just one line connecting rich white neighborhoods to a downtown business district.

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所有社区都要有公共交通,而不仅仅是一条连接富裕白人社区和市中心商业区的线路Jmy4LtvMxpxu&q

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It means reimagining zoning laws so that shops and homes are side by side instead of miles away from each other.

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要重新设想分区法律,让商店和住宅彼此邻近,而不是相距数英里vwzd;tBTbV&UHr

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It means making sure that bus stops, train stations, and vehicles themselves are accessible to people with disabilities.

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要确保公共汽车站、火车站和车辆方便残疾人使用-[%s-wVp.0PwDCX

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And it means encouraging walking and biking through safer bike lanes and pedestrian only zones.

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要鼓励人们在更安全的自行车道和行人专用区步行和骑行(as28WD!*eNIW-7Q^].~

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These actions will all require significant changes in the way we navigate and indeed envision our communities.

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这些行动都需要我们在发展乃至设想社区的方式上做出重大改变V7n%VUoeyh3IJ

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But considering that the very fate of the world is at stake it's certainly worth doing.

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但考虑到世界的命运岌岌可危,这肯定是值得的QlHx0W1Ry=

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When it comes to transportation, degrowth, rather than an electric car boom, must be top of mind.

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当谈到交通运输时,人们最关心的一定是去增长,而非电动汽车潮6!P5H+~NhLp_)Dq7G(

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Building a fleet of hundreds of million new electric cars will only just lock in decades more of imperialist exploitation of the periphery and fail to solve the root causes of climate change.

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建造一支数亿辆新电动汽车的车队,只会让帝国主义对周边地区的剥削再持续几十年,并不能从根源解决气候变化KE_8_2#_Ti(xnP4sd

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Electric vehicles would put immense stress on an already stressed grid, and would require significantly more renewables to make up for added electricity demand.

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电动汽车会给本就有压力的电网带来巨大压力,还会需要更多的可再生能源来满足增加的电力需求9!eU77JKxQ7lmQ~eYSgI

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If we’re already struggling to meet current electricity demand with clean energy, think about what would happen if every internal combustion engine was switched with an electric one.

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如果我们用清洁能源就已经难以满足目前的电力需求,试想如果每台内燃机都换成电动的会发生什么)~Am46qwjnF1Cf7J

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So we need to envision cities and towns that are built around people, not cars.

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因此,我们需要设想以人为中心的城镇,而不是以汽车为中心R|uYhRu,&0R3Ri_xSf

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But this type of degrowth won’t just happen overnight.

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但这种去增长不会在一夜之间发生YF*;@t;lI5%nW~S

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It needs to be facilitated by massive infrastructural changes that de-incentivize cars and make public transportation more appealing.

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这需要通过大规模的基础设施变动来推动进程,通过变动削弱人们开汽车的积极性,使公共交通更具吸引力,p^|b-OeL&7.Fl

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This can be as simple as making buses free, but must eventually end up in a highly connected transportation web so it’s not only convenient but appealing to hop on the railcar or the bus to get to your friends’ house.

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变动可以像让公交车免费乘坐一样简单,但最终必须搭建一个高度互联的交通网络,这样一来,乘坐有轨电车或公交车去朋友家不仅方便,还具备吸引力k~oiJRg%gkPD;v

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When it comes to transportation, our priority should be to envision a car-less world.

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当谈到交通运输时,我们的首要任务应该是设想一个没有汽车的世界xuAirMc=~Y@

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One where cities are walkable, bikeable, and disability friendly.

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一个各城市内可以步行、骑自行车,对残疾人友好的世界Xo9eI)D!zb;kri)%fl=

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One where rapid, electric public transportation is the primary mode of getting around.

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一个快速、电动的公共交通是最主要交通方式的世界Qw^;.,+~WVNA1WPI

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A world with cities that look a lot more like Wakanda than Los Angeles.

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一个各城市看起来更像瓦坎达,而不是洛杉矶的世界9q2knlLGbwVxso4Z

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