日期:2015-12-23 17:57


听力部分 Section A mini-lecture





In this section, you will hear a mini-lecture. You will hear the lecture ONCE ONLY. While listening, take notes on the important points. Your notes will not be marked, but you will need them to complete a gap-filling task after the mini-lecture. When the lecture is over, you will be given two minutes to check your notes, and another ten minutes to complete the gap-filling task on ANSWER SHEET ONE, using no more than three words in each gap. Make sure the word(s) you fill in is (are) both grammatically and semantically acceptable. You may refer to your notes while completing the task. Use the blank sheet for note-taking. Now listen to the mini-lecture.

听力部分 Section B interview


In this section you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct answer to each question on ANSWER SHEET TWO.

Questions 1 to 5 are based on an interview. At the end of the interview you will be given 10 seconds to answer each of the following five questions.

Now listen to the interview.

1.What is the main purpose of Angelina's visit to Iraq?

[A] To draw attention to the refugee crisis.

[B] To look after refugees in Iraq.

[C] To work for U.N.H.C.R.

[D] To work out a plan for refugees.

2.From the interview we know that Angelina _________.

[A] was strongly opposed to officials’ opinions

[B] thought young kids should be given priority

[C] was much worried about the lack of action

[D] proposed that policies be made promptly

3.Which of the following BEST explains what the global community should do?

[A] To supervise the construction of schools.

[B] To take prompt and effective actions.

[C] To provide water and power supply.

[D] To prevent instability and aggression.

4.According to Angelina, what is the key issue in solving the refugee problem?

[A] The current situation in Iraq.

[B] The politics in the Middle East

[C] Refugees returning to normal life.

[D] International and domestic efforts.

5.Angelina saw her trip to Iraq significant because she could_________.

[A] help others know where the problems were

[B] help bring NGOs back to the region

[C] talk to different people there

[D] read the official papers

听力部分 Section C news broadcast


In this section you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct answer to each question on ANSWER SHEET TWO.

Question 6 is based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 10 seconds to answer the question.

Now listen to the news.

6.What is the main idea of the news item?

[A] Alitalia's attempt to help Wind Jet out.

[B] Cancellation of flights at Rome Airport

[C] Problems caused by Wind Jet's cash shortage.

[D] Expected changes of Wind Jet’s flight destinations.

Question 7 and 8 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 20 seconds to answer the question.

Now listen to the news.

7.What did the researchers discover in northern Kenya?

[A] A human tooth.

[B] A human skull.

[C] Three species of humans.

[D] Three human fossils.

8.What was the significance of the discovery?

[A] The findings were published in Nature.

[B] It supported an existing assumption.

[C] Most research questions were answered.

[D] More research efforts were encouraged.

Questions 9 and 10 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 20 seconds to answer the questions.

Now listen to the news.

9.The airport originally decided to cover up the poster because __________

[A] some international travellers complained

[B] the art exhibition was to be postponed

[C] other artists works were absent from ads

[D] real-life models would appear on the scene

10.What was the reaction of the National Galleries of Scotland?


[B] Indignant.

[C] Surprised.

[D] Outraged.

阅读部分 Text A-D


In this section there are four reading passages followed be a total of 20 multiple-choice questions. Read the passages and then mark the best answer to each question on ANSWER SHEER TWO.


My class at Harvard Business School helps students understand what good management theory is and how it is built. In each session, we look at one company through the lenses of different theories, using them to explain how the company got into its situation and to examine what action will yield the needed results. On the last day of class, I asked my class to turn those theoretical lenses on themselves to find answers to two questions: First, How can I be sure I’ll be happy in my career? Second, how can I be sure my relationships with my spouse and my family will become an enduring source of happiness? Here are some management tools that can be used to help you lead a purposeful life.

1. Use Your Resources Wisely. Your decisions about allocating your personal time, energy, and talent shape your life’s strategy. I have a bunch of “businesses” that compete for these resources:I’m trying to have a rewarding relationship with my wife, raise great kids, contribute to my community, succeed in my career, and contribute to my church. And I have exactly the same problem that a corporation does. I have a limited amount of time, energy and talent. How much do I devote to each of these pursuits?

Allocation choices can make your life turn out to very different from what you intended.Sometimes that’s good: opportunities that you have never planned for emerge. But if you don’t invest your resources wisely, the outcome can be bad. As I think about people who inadvertently invested in lives of hollow unhappiness, I can’t help believing that their troubles related right back to a short-term perspective.

When people with a high need for achievement have an extra half hour of time or an extra ounce of energy, they’ll unconsciously allocate it to activities that yield the most tangible accomplishments. Our careers provide the most concrete evidence that we’re moving forward.You ship a product, finish a design, complete a presentation, close a sale teach a class, publish a paper, get paid, get promoted. In contrast, investing time and energy in your relationships with your spouse and children typically doesn’t offer the same immediate sense of achievement. Kids misbehave every day. It’s really not until 20 years down the road that you can say, “I raised a good son or a good daughter.” You can neglect your relationship with your spouse and on a daily basis it doesn’t seem as if thing are deteriorating. People who are driven to excel have this unconscious propensity to underinvest in their families and overinvest in their careers, even though intimate and loving family relationships are the most powerful and enduring source of happiness.

If you study the root causes of business disasters, over and over you’ll find this predisposition toward endeavors that offer immediate gratification. If you look at personal lives through that lens,you’ll see that same stunning and sobering pattern: people allocating fewer and fewer resources to the things they would have once said mattered most.

2. Create A Family Culture. It’s one thing to see into the foggy future with a acuity and chart the course corrections a company must make. But it’s quite another to persuade employees to line up and work cooperatively to take the company in that new direction.

When there is little agreement, you have to use “power tools” – coercion, threats, punishments and so on, to secure cooperation. But if employee’s ways of working together succeed over and over, consensus begins to form. Ultimately, people don ‘t even think about whether their way yields success. They embrace priorities and follow procedures by instinct and assumption rather than by explicit decision, which means that they’ve created a culture. Culture, in compelling but unspoken ways, dictates the proven, acceptable methods by which member s of a group address recurrent problems. And culture defines the priority given to different types of problems. It can be a powerful management tool.

I use this model to address the question, How can I be my family becomes an enduring source of happiness? My students quickly see that the simplest way parents can elicit cooperation from children is to wield power tools. But there comes a point during the teen years when power tools no longer work. At that point, parents start wishing they had begun working with their children at a very young age to build a culture in which children instinctively behave respectfully toward one another, obey their parents, and choose the right thing to do. Families have cultures, just as companies do. Those cultures can be built consciously.

If you want your kids to have strong self-esteem and the confidence that they can solve hard problems, those qualities won’t magically materialize in high school. You have to design them into your family’s culture and you have think about this very early on. Like employees, children build self-esteem by doing things that are hard and learning what works.

11. According to the author, the key to successful allocation of resources in your life depends on whether you ________.

A. can manage your time well

B. have long-term planning

C. are lucky enough to have new opportunities

D. can solve both company and family problems

12. What is the role of the statement “Our careers provide the most concrete evidence that we’re moving forward” with reference to the previous statement in the paragraph?

A. To offer further explanation

B. To provide a definition

C. To present a contrast

D. To illustrate career development

13. According to the author, a common cause of failure in business and family relationships is ________.

A. lack of planning

B. short-sightedness

C. shortage of resources

D. decision by instinct

14. According to the author, when does culture begin to emerge ________.

A. When people decide what and how to do by instinct

B. When people realize the importance of consensus

C. When people as a group decide how to succeed

D. When people use “power tools” to reach agreement

15. One of the similarities between company culture and family culture is that ________.

A. problem-solving ability is essential

B. cooperation is the foundation

C. respect and obedience are key elements

D. culture needs to be nurtured

Text B

It was nearly bedtime and when they awoke next morning land would be in sight. Dr. Macphail lit his pipe and, leaning over the rail, searched the heavens for the Southern Cross. After two years at the front and a wound that had taken longer to heal than it should, he was glad to settle down quietly at Apia (阿皮亚,西萨摩亚首都) for twelve months at least, and he felt already better for the journey. Since some of the passengers were leaving the ship next day they had had a little dance that evening and in his ears hammered still the harsh notes of the mechanical piano. But the deck was quiet at last. A little way off he saw his wife in a long chair talking with the Davidsons, and he strolled over to her. When he sat down under the light and took off his hat you saw that he had very red hair, with a bald patch on the crown, and the red, freckled skin which accompanies red hair; he was a man of forty, thin, with a pinched face, precise and rather pedantic; and he spoke with a Scots accent in a very low, quiet voice.

Between the Macphails and the Davidsons, who were missionaries, there had arisen the intimacy of shipboard, which is due to proximity rather than to any community of taste. Their chief tie was the disapproval they shared of the men who spent their days and nights in the smoking-room playing poker or bridge and drinking. Mrs. Macphail was not a little flattered to think that she and her husband were the only people on board with whom the Davidsons were willing to associate,and even the doctor, shy but no fool, half unconsciously acknowledged the compliment. It was because he was of an argumentative mind that in their cabin at night he permitted himself to carp (唠叨).

‘Mrs. Davidson was saying she didn’t know how they’d have got through the journey if it hadn’t been for us,’ said Mrs. Macphail, as she neatly brushed out her transformation (假发). ‘She said we were really the only people on the ship they cared to know.’

‘I shouldn’t have thought a missionary was such a big bug (要人、名士) that he could afford to put on frills (摆架子).’

‘It’s not frills. I quite understand what she means. It wouldn’t have been very nice for the Davidsons to have to mix with all that rough lot in the smoking-room.’

‘The founder of their religion wasn’t so exclusive,’ said Dr. Macphail with a chuckle.

‘I’ve asked you over and over again not to joke about religion,’ answered his wife. ‘I shouldn’t like to have a nature like yours, Alec. You never look for the best in people.’

He gave her a sidelong glance with his pale, blue eyes, but did not reply. After many years of married life he had learned that it was more conducive to peace to leave his wife with the last word.He was undressed before she was, and climbing into the upper bunk he settled down to read himself to sleep.

When he came on deck next morning they were close to land. He looked at it with greedy eyes.There was a thin strip of silver beach rising quickly to hills covered to the top with luxuriant vegetation. The coconut trees, thick and green, came nearly to the water’s edge, and among them you saw the grass houses of the Samoaris (萨摩亚人); and here and there, gleaming white, a little church. Mrs. Davidson came and stood beside him. She was dressed in black, and wore round her neck a gold chain, from which dangled a cross. She was a little woman, with brown, dull hair very elaborately arranged, and she had prominent blue eyes behind invisible pince-nez (夹鼻眼镜). Her face was long, like a sheep’s, but she gave no impression of foolishness, rather of extreme alertness; she had the quick movements of a bird. The most remarkable thing about her was her voice, high, metallic, and without inflection; it fell on the ear with a hard monotony, irritating to the nerves like the pitiless clamor of the pneumatic drill.

‘This must seem like home to you,’ said Dr. Macphail, with his thin, difficult smile.

‘Ours are low islands, you know, not like these. Coral. These are volcanic. We’ve got another ten days' journey to reach them.’

‘In these parts that’s almost like being in the next street at home,’ said Dr. Macphail facetiously.

‘Well, that’s rather an exaggerated way of putting it, but one does look at distances differently in the J South Seas. So far you’re right.’

Dr. Macphail sighed faintly.

16. It can be inferred from the first paragraph that Dr. Macphail ________.

A. preferred quietness to noise

B. enjoyed the sound of the mechanical piano

C. was going back to his hometown

D. wanted to befriend the Davidsons

17. The Macphails and the Davidsons were in each other’e company because they ________.

A. had similar experience

B. liked each other

C. shared dislike for some passengers

D. had similar religious belief

18. Which of the following statements BEST describes Mrs. Macphail?

A. She was good at making friends

B. She was prone to quarrelling with her husband

C. She was skillful in dealing with strangers

D. She was easy to get along with.

19. All the following adjectives can be used to depict Mrs. Davidson EXCEPT ________.

A. arrogant

B. unapproachable

C. unpleasant

D. irritable

20. Which of the following statements about Dr. Macphail is INCORRECT?

A. He was sociable.

B. He was intelligent.

C. He was afraid of his wife.

D. He was fun of the Davidsons.

Text C

Today we make room for a remarkably narrow range of personality styles. We're told that to be great is to be bold, to be happy is to be sociable. We see ourselves as a nation of extroverts — which means that we've lost sight of who we really are. One-third to one-half of Americans are introverts — in the other words, one out of every two or three people you know. If you're not an introvert yourself, you are surely raising,managing, married to, or coupled with one.

If these statistics surprise you, that's probably because so many people pretend to be extroverts.Closet introverts pass undetected on playgrounds, in high school locker rooms, and in the corridors of corporate America. Some fool even themselves, until some life event — a layoff, an empty nest, an inheritance that frees them to spend time as they like — jolts them into taking stock of their true natures. You have only to raise this subject with your friends and acquaintances to find that the most unlikely people consider themselves introverts.

It makes sense that so many introverts hide even from themselves. We live with a value system that I call the Extrovert Ideal— the omnipresent belief that the ideal self is gregarious, alpha, and comfortable in the spotlight. The archetypal extrovert prefers action to contemplation, risk-taking to heed-taking, certainty to doubt. He favors quick decisions, even at the risk of being wrong. She works well in teams and socializes in groups. We like to think that we value individuality, but all too often we admire one type of individual — the kind who's comfortable "putting himself out there." Sure, we allow technologically gifted loners who launch companies in garages to have any personality they please, but they are the exceptions, not the rule, and our tolerance extends mainly to those who get fabulously wealthy or hold the promise of doing so.

Introversion — along with its cousin’s sensitivity, seriousness, and shyness — is now a second-class personality trait, somewhere between a disappointment and a pathology. Introverts living under the Extrovert Ideal are like women in a man's world, discounted because of a trait that goes to the core of who they are. Extroversion is an enormously appealing personality style, but we've turned it into an oppressive standard to which most of us feel we must conform.

The Extrovert Ideal has been documented in many studies, though this research has never been grouped under a single name. Talkative people, for example, are rated as smarter, better-looking,more interesting, and more desirable as friends. Velocity of speech counts as well as volume: we rank fast talkers as more competent and likable than slow ones. Even the word introvert is stigmatized — one informal study, by psychologist Laurie Helgoe, found that introverts described their own physical appearance in vivid language, but when asked to describe generic introverts they drew a bland and distasteful picture.

But we make a grave mistake to embrace the Extrovert Ideal so unthinkingly. Some of our greatest ideas, art, and inventions — from the theory of evolution to van Gogh's sunflowers to the personal computer — came from quiet and cerebral people who knew how to tune in to their inner worlds and the treasures to be found there.

21. According to the author, there exists, as far as personality styles are concerned, a discrepancy between ________.

A. what people say they can do and what they actually can

B. what society values and what people pretend to be

C. what people profess and what statistics show

D. what people profess and what they hide from others

22. The ideal extrovert is described as being all the following EXCEPT ________.

A. doubtful

B. sociable

C. determined

D. bold

23. According to the author, our society only permits ________ to have whatever personality they like.

A. the young

B. the ordinary

C. the artistic

D. the rich

24. According to the passage, which of the following statements BEST reflects the author’s opinion?

A. Introversion is seen as an inferior trait because of its association with sensitivity.

B. Extroversion is arbitrary forced by society as a norm upon people.

C. Introverts are generally regarded as either unsuccessful or as deficient.

D. Extroversion and introversion have similar personality trait profiles.

25. The author winds up the passage with a ________ note.

A. cautious

B. warning

C. positive

D. humorous

Text D

Speaking two languages rather than just one has obvious practical benefits in an increasingly globalized world. But in recent years, scientists have begun to show that the advantages of bilingualism are even more fundamental than being able to converse with a wider range of people.Being bilingual, it turns out, makes you smarter. It can have a profound effect on your brain,improving cognitive skills not related to language and even shielding against dementia (痴呆) in old age.

This view of bilingualism is remarkably different from the understanding of bilingualism through much of the 20th century. Researchers, educators and policy makers long considered a second language to be an interference, cognitively speaking, that hindered a child’s academic and intellectual development.

They were not wrong about the interference: there is ample evidence that in a bilingual’s brain both language systems are active even when he is using only one language, thus creating situations in which one system obstructs the other. But this interference, researchers are finding out, isn’t so much a handicap as a blessing in disguise. It forces the brain to resolve internal conflict,giving the mind a workout that strengthens its cognitive muscles.

The collective evidence from a number of such studies suggests that the bilingual experience improves the brain’s so-called executive function — a command system that directs the attention processes that we use for planning, solving problems and performing various other mentally demanding tasks. These processes include ignoring distractions to stay focused, switching attention willfully from one thing to another and holding information in mind ? like remembering a sequence of directions while driving.

Why does the tussle between two simultaneously active language systems improve these aspects of cognition? Until recently, researchers thought the bilingual advantage stemmed primarily from ability for inhibition that was honed by the exercise of suppressing one language system: this suppression, it was thought, would help train the bilingual mind to ignore distractions in other contexts. But that explanation increasingly appears to be inadequate, since studies have shown that bilinguals perform better than monolinguals even at tasks that do not require inhibition, like threading a line through an ascending series of numbers scattered randomly on a page.

The key difference between bilinguals and monolinguals may be more basic: a heightened ability to monitor the environment. “Bilinguals have to switch languages quite often? You may talk to your father in one language and to your mother in another language,” says Albert Costa, a researcher at the University of Pompeu Fabra in Spain. “It requires keeping track of changes around you in the same way that we monitor our surroundings when driving.” In a study comparing German-Italian bilinguals with Italian monolinguals on monitoring tasks, Mr. Costa and his colleagues found that the bilingual subjects not only performed better, but they also did so with less activity in parts of the brain involved in monitoring, indicating that they were more efficient at it.

The bilingual experience appears to influence the brain from infancy to old age, and there is reason to believe that it may also apply to those who learn a second language later in life.

26. According to the passage, the more recent and old views of bilingualism differ mainly in ________.

A. its practical advantages

B. its role in cognition

C. perceived language fluency

D. its role in medicine

27. The fact that interference is now seen as a blessing in disguise means that ________.

A. it has led to unexpectedly favorable results

B. its potential benefits have remained undiscovered

C. its effects on cognitive development have been minimal

D. only a few researchers have realized its advantages

28. What is the role of Paragraph Four in relation to Paragraph Three?

A. It provides counter evidence to Paragraph Three.

B. It offers another example of the role of interference.

C. It serves as a transitional paragraph in the passage.

D. It further illustrates the point in Paragraph Three.

29. Which of the following can account for better performance of bilinguals in doing non-inhibition tasks?

A. An ability to monitor surroundings.

B. An ability to ignore distractions.

C. An ability to perform with less effort.

D. An ability to exercise suppression.

30. What is the main theme of the passage?

A. Features of bilinguals and monolinguals.

B. Interference and suppression.

C. Bilinguals and monitoring tasks.

D. Reasons why bilinguals are smarter.



There are ten multiple-choice questions in this section. Mark the best answer to each question on ANSWER SHEET TWO.

31. Which of the following is the French-speaking city in Canada?

A. Vancouver

B. Ottawa

C. Montreal

D. Toronto

32. Which of the following are natives of New Zealand?

A. The Maoris

B. The Aboriginals

C. The Red Indians

D. The Eskimos

33. The established or national church in England is ________.

A. the Roman Catholic Church

B. the United Reformed Church

C. the Anglican Church

D. the Methodist Church

34. The thirteen former British colonies in North America declared independence from Great Britain in ________.

A. 1774

B. 1775

C. 1776

D. 1777

35. “Grace under pressure” is an outstanding virtue of ________ heroes.

A. Scott Fitzgerald’s

B. Ernest Hemingway’s

C. Eugene O’Neill’s

D. William Faulkner’s

36. Widowers’ House was written by ________.

A. John Galsworthy

B. George Bernard Shaw

C. William Butler Yeats

D. T. S. Eliot

37. Who wrote The Canterbury Tales?

A. William Shakespeare

B. William Blake

C. Geoffrey Chaucer

D. John Donne

38. Which of the following pairs of words are homophones?

A. wind (v.) / wind (n.)

B. suspect (v.) / suspect (n.)

C. convict (v.) / convict (n.)

D. bare (adj.) / bear (v.)

39. Which of the following sentences has the “S+V+O” structure?

A. He died a hero.

B. I went to London.

C. Mary enjoyed parties.

D. She became angry.

40. Which of the following CAN NOT be used as an adverbial?

A. The lion’s share

B. Heart and soul.

C. Null and void.

D. Hammer and tongs.



The passage contains TEN errors. Each indicated line contains a maximum of one error. In each case, only ONE word is involved. You should proof-read the passage and correct it in the following way:

For a wrong word, underline the wrong word and write the correct one in the blank provided at the end of the line.

For a missing word, mark the position of the missing word with a “^” sign and write the word you believe to be missing in the blank provided at the end of the line.

For an unnecessary word, cross the unnecessary word with a slash “/” and put the word in the blank provided at the end of the line.

There is widespread consensus among scholars that second language acquisition (SLA) emerged as a distinct field of research from the late 1950s to early 1960s.

There is a high level of agreement that the following questions (1) ______

have possessed the most attention of researchers in this area: (2) ______

l Is it possible to acquire an additional language in the

same sense one acquires a first language? (3) ______

l What is the explanation for the fact adults have (4) ______

more difficulty in acquiring additional languages than children have?

l What motivates people to acquire additional language?

l What is the role of the language teaching in the (5) ______

acquisition of additional languages?

l What social-cultural factors, if any, are relevant in studying the

learning of additional languages?

From a check of the literature of the field it is clear that all (6) ______

the approaches adopted to study the phenomena of SLA so far have

one thing in common: The perspective adopted to view the acquiring

of an additional language is that of an individual attempts to do (7) ______

so. Whether one labels it “learning” or “acquiring” an additional

language, it is an individual accomplishment or what is under (8) ______

focus is the cognitive, psychological, and institutional status of an

individual. That is, the spotlight is on what mental capabilities are

involving, what psychological factors play a role in the learning (9) ______

or acquisition, and whether the target language is learnt in the

classroom or acquired through social touch with native speakers. (10) ______




Translate the underlined part of the following text into English. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.

当我在小学毕了业的时候,亲友一致的愿意我去学手艺,好帮助母亲。我晓得我应当去找饭吃,以减轻母亲的勤劳困苦。 可是,我也愿意升学。我偷偷地考入了师范学校——制服,饭食,书籍,宿处,都由学校供给。只有这样,我才敢对母亲提升学的话。入学,要交十元的保证金。这是一笔巨款!母亲作了半个月的难,把这巨款筹到,而后含泪把我送出门去。她不辞劳苦,只要儿子有出息。当我由师范毕业,而被派为小学校长,母亲与我都一夜不曾合眼。我只说了句:“以后,您可以歇一歇了!”她的回答只有一串串的眼泪。


Translate the following text into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.

The physical distance between speakers can indicate a number of things and can also be used to used to consciously send messages about intent. Closeness, for example, indicates intimacy or threat to many speakers whilst distance may denote formality or a lack of interest. Proximity is also both a matter of personal style and is often culture-bound so that what may seem normal to a speaker from one culture may appear unnecessarily close or distant to a speaker from another.And standing close to someone may be quite appropriate in some situations such as an informal party, but completely out of place in others, such as meeting with a superior.

Posture can convey meaning too. Hunched shoulders and a hanging head give a powerful indication of mood. A lowered head when speaking to a superior (with or without eye contact) can convey the appropriate relationship in some cultures.



Nowadays, some companies have work-from-home or remote working policies, which means that their employees do not have to commute to work every day. Some people think that this can save a lot of time travelling to and from work, thus raising employees’ productivity. However, others argue that in the workplace, people can communicate face to face, which vastly increase the efficiency of coordination and cooperation. What is your opinion?

Write an essay of about 400 words on the following topic:

My Views on Working from Home

In the first part of your essay you should state clearly your main argument, and in the second part you should support your argument with appropriate details. In the last part you should bring what you have written to a natural conclusion or make a summary.

Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriateness. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks.

Write your essay on ANSWER SHEET FOUR.


Section A Mini-lecture

1. physical

2. a demand

3. blood pressure

4. Category

5. a job

6. signals

7. body or mind

8. advantage

9. accept

10. reasonable speed

Section B Interview


Section C News Broadcast

6-10 BDBAC



Part 1, Listening Comprehension


How to Reduce Stress

Good morning! Today we look at how to reduce stress. As you all know, life always has stresses, Ur, things which are causing us stress and living without stress is virtually impossible. So, if we have to live with stress, we may as well find out more about what it is ,how we can deal with it and so on. What is stress, then? The term was originally used in physics to describe the force exerted between two touching bodies. That was strictly a term describing a physical reaction. Then in the 1930s, a doctor named Hans Selye, S-E-L-Y-E, first used this term to describe a human’s reaction to a demand placed on it, pleasant or not. And he included in this response, things like accelerated breathing, accelerated heart rate, increased blood pressure, muscle tension and so on.

Now, please notice that I said that stress can be pleasant or not, this response can also be pleasant or not. And stress can be both negative and positive. Let’s take a look at positive stress. Positive stress occurs in a life situation towards which one feels positively, things like Christmas or getting married are usually positive events, but still stressful, nonetheless. Another example is the pressure in a job can give some people incentive to work and excitement, but it still is stress. Negative stress is what most of us think of when we think of stress. And negative stress occurs logically enough in situations towards which one feels negatively. And those examples could be test-taking, a friend’s death and so on. But here a thing to remember is that stress in itself is not hazardous. Rather, the danger is in the individual’s reaction to the stress. So psychologists have found that if we develop appropriate ways to cope with stressful situations, individuals can reduce the physiological harm which is caused by stress, or which can be caused by stress. And that’s what I want to talk a bit about today – what are these appropriate ways to deal with stress, how to minimize any negative reactions. The first thing that most psychologists suggest is to learn to recognize your own stress signals. We all have different types of stress signals, but individuals should monitor themselves for stress signals, so that they can focus on minimizing or acknowledging the stress before it gets out of control. And common early signs for many people include irritability, insomnia, weight loss or even weight gain, smoking, drinking, increases in small errors, all kinds of things that people get which could be an early signal of stress.

You can consider ways to protect yourself when you start seeing these signs coming on. So you might decide to withdraw from a stressful situation or reward yourself with equal amounts of low stress activity time. That’s really the first important way to deal with stress appropriately. The second important way to deal with stress is to pay attention to your body’s demands. Most psychologists are finding that a good exercise program, good nutrition, decreases the amount of stress, or the effect of stress on the body or in the mind. And this seems quite apparent because exercise can provide a stress-free environment away from your usual stresses and it keeps your body busy and preoccupied with non-stressful things. OK, the third thing to reduce stress is to make plans and act when appropriate. What is suggested is that rather than wasting energy on worrying, an individual can direct his or her energy to plan the steps and act. And often, just the planning of the action helps to reduce the stress, because it reduces the worrying. And also the results of the plans or action may serve to remove or weaken the original cause of the stress. Please notice that I just now said “when appropriate”. And this next suggestion has to do with that idea of when appropriate. The third suggestion was to make plans and act when appropriate, rather than just sit around and worry. But the fourth plan, or fourth idea, says to learn to accept situations which are out of your control. These two then go hand in hand. You can make plans and act when it’s appropriate, but when it’s not appropriate, or when it’s impossible, the only way is to learn to accept that some things are unchangeable and out of your hands.

So, for example, if you are in traffic, lateness caused by traffic is out of your hands. There’s no sense in getting really crazy about that. If you do so, it only increases your stress to waste energy trying to resist what’s inevitable or what can’t be avoided. The last item that psychologists suggest is to pace your activities. By “pace”, I mean giving yourself some manageable tasks to do at a reasonable speed. That is, you go at a speed that you can handle, break your task into manageable parts, rather than try to deal with the whole task all at once. So, as an example in your lives as students, a whole term paper might feel overwhelming. But if you say to yourself, today I’m going to the library and gather resources, tomorrow, I’m going to read three articles, and so on, you’ll have broken this one large task, that’s writing a term paper, down into many smaller and more manageable tasks. This will certainly reduce your stress. Ok. Having said all these, I want you to remember that the problem is not in the stressful experiences themselves. We all experience stress and stressful events. The problem is in our reactions to these experiences. And each of us has our own limits for stress and our own ways of coping with stress. So long as we have our own appropriate ways, stress or stressful situations can certainly be dealt with. Ok. That’s all for today’s lecture. See you next week.


Damon: First of all, thank you obviously for your time, Angelina.You are now in Iraq. So what is your main aim in this visit? Whatare you trying to accomplish while you are out here?

Jolie: Well, I came to the region about 6 months ago. I first wentto Syria because I work with U.N.H.C.R. and there are 1.5 millionrefugees in Syria alone from Iraq and while I was there, I went inside and met with some internallydisplaced people. You know, these are the people made homeless because of the war. They arerefugees. And this trip is to get a better picture of the internally displaced people and to discuss thesituation with the local government, with our government, with the NGOs and with local people,and try to understand what is happening, because there are over 2 million internally displacedpeople and there doesn't seem to be a real coherent plan to help them and there's lots of good willand lots of discussion, but just a lot of talk at the moment and a lot of pieces need to be puttogether. So, trying to figure out what they are.

Damon: What kind of sense have you been able to get so far in terms of how severe the crisis isand what actually needs to be done to help out?

Jolie: Well, I, in my research before I came here, I looked at the numbers and there are over4million people displaced and of the 2 million internally displaced, it's estimated that 58 percent areunder 12 years old. So it's a very high number of people in a very, very vulnerable situation and alot of young kids. So far the different officials I've met with and different local people I've met withall have shared concerns and very strongly, you know, they have spoken out about thehumanitarian crisis but um, there seems to be a block in. I'm not good at policy and fixing all thisand saying what's wrong, but I do know that, for example, U.N.H.C.R. needs to be more activeinside Iraq.

Damon: How do you think U.N.H.C.R. should be doing?

Jolie: Well, I don't have the answers, but I know that this is one thing that needs to bead dressedand solved because there does need to be a real presence here to help count the people andregister the people.

Damon: Do you think that the global community has a responsibility to address that?

Jolie: Well I think the global community always has a responsibility to any humanitarian crisis. And Ithink it's in our best interest to address a humanitarian crisis on this scale because displacement canlead to a lot of instability and aggression. We certainly don't want that. A lot of people feel it's a littlecalmer now. This is the time to really discuss and try to get these communities back together. Butif these communities don't start coming back together properly, if we don't start really countingthe people, understanding where they are, what they need, making sure the schools are beingbuilt, making sure the electricity, the water and all these needs are being met and alsounderstanding that a lot of the people that will return are going to come back to houses that areoccupied or destroyed and bombed out. It's going to be a big operation to understand the needs,to address it to help people put the pieces of their life back together and return to theircommunities. So it's really just getting the plan together, getting the group together andeverybody actively focused on helping the refugees.

Damon: What would be the message that you would want to carry out of here back home oreven the message that you would want to get out internationally in terms of what's happeninghere, the refugee crisis, the consequences that could happen in the future if it's not properlyaddressed.

Jolie: I always hate speculation on the news, so I don't want to be somebody who speculates. Umbut I think it's clear that a displaced unstable population is what happens in Iraq, and how Iraqsettles in the years to come is going to affect the entire Middle East. And a big part of what is goingto affect how it settles is how these people are returned and settled into their homes into theircommunity and brought back together and whether they can live together and what theircommunities look like, so it does have broad implications.

Damon: On a personal level why is this so important to you? You are willing to come here and riskyour life.

Jolie: Uh, it was an easy choice to make. I felt I had to come here because it is very difficult to getanswers about especially the internally displaced people. It's as I said even U.N.H.C.R. who Itraditionally work with, they are not able to be inside at the moment and so I was very frustratedand just getting a bunch of ideas and papers but not knowing what's really going on, so today I'mable to talk to all different people from our government and their government and really get someanswers as to what is holding up the processes to really assist these people properly.

Damon: Do you think that you in your position can try to push this process forward but, pressureperhaps on our government?

Jolie: To put pressure on our government?

Damon: Yes, so try to just put pressure in general create awareness?

Jolie: I certainly think creating awareness. I spoke to the officials from our government todayabout meeting our goal, and they still intend to reach that goal. You know there are many differentpeople who can be cynical or say well how are they going to do it, and I will ask them how are yougoing to do it and is there some way we can help to ... you know ...

Damon: Ok. Thank you, Angelina, for talking to us.

Jolie: Pleasure.


News 1:

An Italian cash-strapped budget airline, Wind Jet,has suspendedall its flights, leaving hundreds of passengers stranded. At Romeairport, some200 Israeli nationals ─ who had been due to fly toTel Aviv ─ spent the night at the terminal.Another five flights todestinations across Italy were cancelled as well. Further chaos isexpected as some 300,000 passengers across Italy havebooked tickets with Wind Jet incoming weeks. Alitalia, Italy's national airline,says it will help Wind Jetpassengers to find alternative flights, but only on payment of supplements.

News 2:

Researchers studying fossils from northern Kenya have identified a new species of human that livedtwo million years ago. The discoveries suggest that at least three distinct species of humans co-existed in Africa. The research has been published in the journal Nature. Anthropologists havediscovered three human fossils that are between 1.78 and 1.95 million years old. The specimensare of a face and two jawbones with teeth. The discoveries back the view that a skull found in1972 is of a separate species of human, known as Homorudolfensis. The skull was markedlydifferent to any others from that time. It had a relatively large brain and long flat face. But for 40years the skull was the only example of the creature and so it was impossible to say for surewhether the individual was an unusual specimen or a member of a new species. With the discoveryof the three new fossils researchers can say with more certainty that Homorudolfensis really was aseparate type of human that existed around two million years ago alongside other species ofhumans.

News 3:

Picasso's Nude Woman in a Red Armchair was covered up at the Edinburgh Airport. The Airporthas reversed its decision to cover up a poster featuring a Picasso nude following complaints. Theposter was advertising the Picasso and Modern British Art Exhibition at the Scottish National Galleryof Modern Art. However, the airport decided to cover the image after several complaints frompassengers in international arrivals. After gallery chiefs branded the move"bizarre", the airport hasbacked down and removed the cover. John Leighton, director-general of the National Galleries ofScotland, said, "It is obviously bizarre that all kinds of images of women in various states of dressand undress can be used in contemporary advertising without comment, but somehow a paintednude by one of the world's most famous artists is found to be disturbing and has to be removed. "I hope that the public will come and see the real thing, which is a joyous and affectionate portraitof one of Picasso's favorite models, an image that has been shown around the world." AnEdinburgh Airport spokesperson said, "We have now reviewed our original decision and reinstatedthe image. And we are more than happy to display the image in the terminal and we'd like toapologize, particularly to the exhibition organizers, for the confusion."





33. Anglicanism


35.Ernest Hemingway

36.George Bernard Shaw

37.Geoffrey Chaucer






2.把possessed 改成 attracted,

3.把a改成 the

4.在 facts 和adults之间加个that,

5.把第二个the 去掉。

6.把第二个of 改成in


8.把or 改成 and

9.what改成 how





When I was in primary school graduated, relatives and friendsconsistent want me to learn skills, good to help her mother. Iknow I should go to eat, to alleviate the suffering of hard-working mother. However, I would also like to study. I secretlyadmitted to the normal school -- uniforms, meals, books,lodging, by the school supply. Only in this way, I dare to motherascension learn. Admission.




作文题目:My Views on Working from Home



按照专八写作的套路我们思路可以如下写作思路提示:文章可分为三部分,第一部分,提出问题,有些公司给员工提出方便,在家任务,在家任务视乎很温馨,自 己自由支配时间,但实际上在家任务远没有想象的那么好,第二部分,剖析在家任务的弊病。容易懒散,需求自控才能较强,第三部分指出在单位任务的优点,我们 需求与人沟通,协作,需求提升,自己的任务得到别人的认可第四部分总结一下。


Working from Home

Certain companies, especially some small-scale businesses, start to encourage their staff to work from home or use home as a working base for at least part of the week nowadays. Some offer some form of remote working support to their work forces, such as equipping them with laptops and installing broadband, and others pay for the telephone bills for these workers.

This work pattern is popular because it’s clear that there are a number of benefits for these companies. First, it helps retain employees, especially highly- qualified working parents with childcare responsibilities. Second, it brings higher productivity because the employees have fewer interruptions and less commuting time. Last but not least, it offers savings on premises and other facilities.

However, there are some potential drawbacks. For one thing, there is difficulty of managing homeworkers and monitoring their performance, and difficulty of maintaining staff development and upgrading skills. For another, it may create a sense of isolation among home workers and it can be harder to maintain team spirit. Therefore, enterprises should weigh the pros and cons before permitting their employees to work at home.