Second, meaning is contextual. If you change the context, you often change the meaning.
And last, meaning requires reader competency.
Texts constructed as literature have their own ways of expressions or sometimes we say styles.
And the more we know of them, the more we can understand the text.
Consequently, there is in regard to the question of meaning, the matter of reader competency as it is called the experience and knowledge of comprehending literary texts.
Your professors might insist that you practice and improve competency in reading and they might also insist that you interpret meaning in the context of the whole work.
But you may have to learn other competencies too.
For instance, in reading Mulk Raj Anand's The Untouchables you might have to learn what the social structure of India was like at that time,
例如，在阅读穆尔克·拉吉·安纳德（Mulk Raj Anand）的《不可接触的贱民》时你可能需要了解当时印度的社会结构是什么样子的，
what traditions of writing were in practice in India in the early 1930s,
what political, cultural and personal influences Mulk Raj Anand came under when constructing the imaginative world of the short novel.
Ok, you may see that this idea that meaning requires competency in reading in fact brings us back to the historically situated understandings of an author and his works
as we mentioned earlier in this lecture, to different conventions and ways of reading and writing
and to the point that meaning requires a negotiation between cultural meanings across time, culture, class, etc.
As readers, you have in fact acquired a good deal of competency already but you should acquire more.
The essential point of this lecture is that meaning in literature is a phenomenon that is not easily located,
that meaning is historical, social and derived from the traditions of reading and thinking and understanding of the world that you are educated about.
Thank you for your attention!