The third is proximity, posture and echoing. Proximity refers to the physical distance between speakers.
This can indicate a number of things and can also be used to consciously send messages about intent.
Closeness, for example, indicates intimacy or threat to many speakers. But distance may show formality, or lack of interest.
Once again, I'd like to say, proximity is also both a matter of personal style, and is often culture bound.
So, what may seem normal to a speaker from one culture may appear unnecessarily close or distant to a speaker from another.
And standing close to someone may be quite appropriate in some situations such as an informal party,
but completely out of place in other situations, such as a meeting with a superior.
Next, posture. Posture means the way in which someone holds his or her body, especially the back, shoulders and head, when standing, walking or sitting.
A few examples. Hunched shoulders and a hanging head give a powerful indication of whether the person is happy or not.
A lowered head when speaking to a superior, with or without eye contact can convey the appropriate relationship in some cultures.
On the other hand, direct level eye contact, changes the nature of interaction, and can be seen as either open or challenging.
Last, echoing. Now, what is echoing? Let me start with an example. Some of you may have noticed this phenomenon in your experience.
When two people are keen to agree each other, they would likely, though unconsciously adopt the same posture, as if an imitation of each other.
They sit or stand in the same manner. When used in this way, echoing appears to complement the verbal communication.
Of course, when such imitation is carried out consciously, it often indicates that someone is mocking at another speaker.
Ok, in today's lecture, we looked at some paralinguistic features, such as tone of voice, gesture and posture.
These features, together with linguistic features of language, like grammar, or vocabulary,
are all part of the way we communicate with each other in face-to-face encounters.
In our next lecture, we'll watch some video material, and see how people actually use paralinguistic means in communication to express their intention or desire or mood.