OK. The third thing that a listener needs to do, and this is to me the most important thing of all, and that's to predict as you listen.
Now let me give you two reasons why you have to predict.
For one thing, if you predict it helps you overcome noise.
What do I mean by noise?
Maybe there's noise outside and you can't hear me.
Maybe you're in the back of the room and you can't hear all that well.
Maybe the microphone doesn't work.
Maybe there's noise inside your head.
By that I mean maybe you're thinking of something else.
And then all of a sudden, you'll remember "Oh, I've got to listen."
By being able to predict during the lecture, you can just keep listening to the lecture and not lose the idea of what's going on.
So predicting is important to help you overcome outside noise and inside noise.
And another reason that predicting is important is because it saves you time.
Now when you listen you need time to think about the information, relate it to old ideas, take notes,
and if you're only keeping up with what I'm saying or what the lecturer's saying, you have no time to do that.
And I'll bet a lot of you are having that problem right now because it's so hard just to follow everything I'm saying that you don't have time to note down ideas.
So predicting saves you time.
If you can guess what I'm going to say, you're able to take notes, you're able to think, you have more time. OK?
And there are two types of predictions that you can make: predictions of content and predictions of organization.
Let me give you an example in terms of content.
If you hear the words "Because he loved to cook, his favorite room was..." what would you expect?
Kitchen. You can guess this because you know people cook in the kitchen.OK?
And you can also predict organization.
So if I was going to tell you a story, you expect me to tell you why the story is important, give you a setting for the story.
So you have expectations of what the speaker is going to talk about and how the speaker will organize his or her words.
Now let's come to the last thing a listener must do:
the listener must evaluate as he or she is listening, decide what's important, what's not, decide how something relates to something else. OK?
There are again two reasons for this.
The first one is evaluating helps you to decide what to take notes about, what's important to write down, what's not important to write down.
And the second reason is that evaluating helps you to keep information.
Studies have shown that we retain more information if ideas are connected to one another rather than just individually remembered.
So for example, if I give you five ideas that are not related to one another, that's much more difficult to remember than five ideas that are related.
So you can see evaluating helps you to remember information better because it connects ideas to one another.
OK. From what I've said so far, you can see there's a lot involved in listening to lectures - language awareness, adding information, making predictions and evaluations.
I hope these will be useful to you in lecture comprehension.