**双语畅销书《艾伦图灵传》第3章:思考什么是思考(65)**

(单词翻译:单击)

Kenneth Harrison was also acquainted with some of Russell’s ideas, and he and Alan would spend hours discussing them.

肯尼斯·哈里森也了解罗素的一些观点，艾伦花了很多时间和他讨论。

Rather to Alan’s annoyance, however, he would ask ‘but what use is it?’ Alan would say quite happily that of course it was completely useless.

相比于艾伦的苦恼，他只会问"这玩意有什么用？"，而艾伦则笑着说，它当然完全没用。

But he must also have talked to more enthusiastic listeners, for in the autumn of 1933 he was invited to read a paper to the Moral Science Club.

不过，艾伦也有热情的听众，因为在1933年秋天，他受邀到道德科学俱乐部读一篇论文。

This was a rare honour for any undergraduate, especially one from outside the faculty of Moral Sciences, as philosophy and its allied disciplines were called at Cambridge.

这对于本科生来说，是一项殊荣，特别是他并不是来自哲学或相关的专业。

It would have been a quite unnerving experience, speaking in front of professional philosophers, but he wrote with customary sangfroid to his mother:

在专业哲学家面前演讲，是一件很恐怖的事，但艾伦带着他特有的冷静写信给母亲：

26/11/33

1933年11月26日

… I am reading a paper to the Moral Science Club on Friday. Something by way of being Mathematical Philosophy. I hope they don’t know it all allready.

……星期五我要给道德科学俱乐部读一篇论文，一些大概关于数学哲学的东西。但愿他们不要都听过了。

The minutes24 of the Moral Science Club recorded that on Friday 1 December 1933:

道德科学俱乐部记录了1933年12月1日星期五的情况：

The sixth meeting of the Michaelmas term was held in Mr Turing’s rooms in King’s College.

秋季第一学期第六次会议，在国王学院图灵先生的房间举行。

A.M. Turing read a paper on ‘Mathematics and logic’.

A.M.图灵读了一篇关于"数学和逻辑"的论文。

He suggested that a purely logistic view of mathematics was inadequate; and that mathematical propositions possessed a variety of interpretations, of which the logistic was merely one. A discussion followed.

他认为，仅从纯逻辑的角度看待数学是不够的，数学命题有很多不同的解释，逻辑学只是其中一个。详细讨论附在后面。

R.B. Braithwaite (signed).

R.B.布列斯威特（签名）

Richard Braithwaite, the philosopher of science, was a young Fellow of King’s; and it might well have been through him that the invitation was made.

里查德·布列斯威特，科学哲学家，一个年轻的国王的研究员，可能正是他邀请的艾伦。

Certainly, by the end of 1933, Alan Turing had his teeth into two parallel problems of great depth. Both in quantum physics and in pure mathematics, the task was to relate the abstract and the physical, the symbolic and the real.

无疑，在1933年末，艾伦·图灵致力于量子物理和纯数学这两个领域，进行了非常深入的思考，试图建立抽象与具体，符号与实物之间的联系。

German mathematicians had been at the centre of this enquiry, as in all mathematics and science.

德国科学家是这个领域的核心，甚至是整个科学界的核心。

But as 1933 closed, that centre was a gaping, jagged hole, with Hilbert’s Gttingen ruined.

但是随着1933年的到来，希尔伯特所在的哥廷根毁掉了，核心变成了一个下水井盖。

John von Neumann had left for America, never to return, and others had arrived in Cambridge.

冯·诺伊曼远赴美国，不再回来，还有一些人则来到剑桥。

‘There are several distinguished German Jews coming to Cambridge this year,’ wrote Alan on 16 October. Two at least to the mathematical faculty, viz. Born and Courant.’

10月16日，艾伦写道：“有几位杰出的犹太人今年到剑桥来了，至少有两位分到了数学系，波恩和柯朗。”

He might well have attended the lectures on quantum mechanics that Born gave that term, or those of Courant on differential equations the next term.

他这学期可以好好听波恩的量子物理讲座了，下学期还可以听柯朗注的微分方程。

Born went on to Edinburgh, and Schrdinger to Oxford, but most exiled scientists found America more accommodating than Britain.

波恩到了爱丁堡，薛定谔到了牛津，但是大部分逃亡科学家发现，还是美国比英国更欢迎自己。

The Institute for Advanced Study, at Princeton University, grew particularly quickly.

因此，普林斯顿大学的高级研究院，在这一时期飞速发展。

When Einstein took up residence there in 1933, the physicist Langevin commented, ‘It is as important an event as would be the transfer of the Vatican from Rome to the New World.

当爱因斯坦1933年在那里居住时，物理学家朗之万评论道：“这是一个重大的事件，就像梵蒂冈走出罗马，走向新世界一样。

The Pope of physics has moved and the United States will become the centre of the natural sciences.’

物理学的磁极转移了，美国将会成为自然科学的中心。”

It was not Jewish ancestry alone that attracted the interference of Nazi officialdom, but scientific ideas themselves, even in the philosophy of mathematics:

犹太人不光是种族受到了纳粹官方的干预，甚至还包括科学观点本身，比如在数学哲学领域：

A number of mathematicians met recently at Berlin University to consider the place of their science in the Third Reich.

最近一些数学家在柏林大学见面，讨论他们在第三德国的科研场所。

It was stated that German mathematics would remain those of the ‘Faustian man’, that logic alone was no sufficient basis for them, and that the Germanic intuition which had produced the concepts of infinity was superior to the logical equipment which the French and Italians had brought to bear on the subject.

他们宣称，德国数学家愿做浮士德。仅有逻辑基础对他们来说是不够的，德国人靠直觉产生无限的概念，这要比法国人和意大利人的逻辑方法优秀许多。

Mathematics was a heroic science which reduced chaos to order.

数学是一门伟大的科学，它能减少混乱。

National Socialism had the same task and demanded the same qualities.

社会主义的任务同样是减少混乱，

So the ‘spiritual connexion’ between them and the New Order was established—by a mixture of logic and intuition

所以根据直觉和逻辑的共同作用，他们和新秩序之间的"灵魂联结"已经建立了……

To English minds, the wonder was that any state or party could interest itself in abstract ideas.

这让英国人很惊讶，一个政党居然也对数学感兴趣。