日期:2016-03-02 16:43


Crying seems like an ordinary enough experience and something we don't really think of as strange. Yet if we really stop to contemplate what's happening—salt water dripping out of our eyes during emotional moments—it seems a little bizarre. What do tears, eyes, and emotions have to do with each other?


One of the prevailing theories to explain human crying is put forth by Dutch psychologist Ad Vingerhoets. He argues that crying is largely a social sign that has its evolutionary roots in distress signals. Most young animals emit some type of distress sound to alert others that they need help. It's thought that crying started as a way for humans to signify their distress (through tears) without making a predator-alerting scream or other noise. Although human babies usually have audible cries, adults often shed tears with little noise. Evolutionarily, this could have been an advantageous response, since another member of the tribe would only need to glance at the crier to see he was in trouble. Interestingly, humans are the only species to emit emotional tears. Most other animals stop making distress calls after reaching adulthood.Further evidence that crying may have originated as a response to danger or trouble is that it also works in conjunction with our sympathetic nervous system (or the fight or flight system). For example, in addition to shedding tears, crying speeds up the heart rate, increases sweating, and slows breathing. Emotional tears even contain a natural painkiller, leucine enkephalin, which could partially explain why we sometimes feel better after a good cry.So, although we can nowadays cry when alone or during harmless, sappy movies, the act may have started as a method of protection.

4.Twitch When Falling Asleep


As much as 70 percent of people twitch or have an involuntary jerk, or hypnagogic jerk, when falling asleep. Other than amusing awake onlookers, it seems there must be an explanation for a behavior that's apparently so common. Unfortunately, scientists aren't entirely sure why we have the spasms, but of course, there are some educated hypotheses.
Some scientists believe it's nothing more than an accidental reaction that happens when our nerves misfire while transitioning from alertness to sleep. This is because our bodies don't have a definitive on/off switch, where "on" is awake and "off" is asleep. Instead we gradually transition between the state where our reticular activating system (which governs basic physiological processes) is in full force and when the ventrolateral system (which drives sleepiness and influences sleep cycles) is in charge. We can be in the middle of the two states, such as when feeling sleepy, and there can be a bit of a struggle as we firmly position ourselves into one state or another. This back-and-forth struggle is thought to cause the misfiring, and the twitches are the last fights of wakefulness.In contrast, others believe it's an evolutionary response left over from our tree-dwelling days, and the jerks are a primate reflex that keeps us from getting too relaxed and falling from branches. Other types of spasms while sleeping aren't quite the same as a hypnagogic jerk. Dreaming of falling, for instance, and then jerking oneself awake is more of an example of dream incorporation where the brain intermixes real life and the dream state.



Women usually get pegged as the biggest gossips out of the two sexes, but men are guilty of this social offense as well. At least one study says men gossip 32 percent more than women per day. No matter which sex has the biggest blabbermouths, hurtful gossip can come back to bite us, yet it seems we can't help ourselves when it comes to dishing a little dirt.
The reason for this is that most of us have an inherent desire to bond with those immediately around us—an urge that can overpower any moral obligations we might feel to mind our own business. We want to form social connections to people in our vicinity, and gossiping not only gives us something to talk about, it immediately creates a sense of trust, since the act of gossiping signals that we're letting the other person in our confidence. In turn, the other person shares secrets, and a rapport is established. As we all know, it also gives us a feeling of superiority, is good for a laugh, and spices up boring situations. Curiously, gossiping about people's successes (if there is such a thing) doesn't have the same effect. Studies show that connecting over shared dislikes creates stronger bonds than discussing shared positives.Although gossiping means we're throwing someone else under the bus for the sake of an immediate relationship or gratification, it might not be an entirely bad thing. Anthropologist Robin Dunbar says that gossip partly drove the evolutionary development of our brains. He argues that language first developed out of our desire to share gossip, and it enables us to talk about those who aren't present while indirectly teaching others how to properly relate to the group.About 60 percent of conversations between adults are about someone who's not present. Thus, there's no need to be paranoid that your friends are talking about you when you're not around, as it's almost certainly a fact.

2.Liking Sad Movies


Enough grief, misfortune, and other nonsense happens to us on a daily basis that it seems ridiculous that we would want to spend our entertainment hours subjecting ourselves to more sadness. Despite this, we still regularly find ourselves sitting down to watch a guaranteed tearjerker. While it may seem counterintuitive, one reason for this is that watching tragedies actually makes us feel happier in the short term and therefore boosts our enjoyment of the movie. Researchers at Ohio State University found that watching sad movies causes people to think about their own close relationships, which makes them feel appreciative and satisfied with their lives. Seeing tragedies on the screen causes folks to examine their own lives and count their blessings. However, the researchers point out that this reaction is not the same as those who watch a tragic movie and think something along the lines of, "Sheesh, at least I don't have it as bad as that guy." Those viewers have selfish thinking, are more focused on themselves instead of others, and don't experience any boost in happiness after watching the film.
Also, according to Dr. Paul Zak, seeing movies or hearing stories about others causes us to feel empathy and prompts our brains to release oxytocin, which increases our feelings of caring. Zak even refers to oxytocin as the "moral molecule" because of how it makes us more trustworthy, generous, and compassionate. Right after a sad movie and the ensuing rush of oxytocin, we feel more connected to the people around us and overall more satisfied—even if we are shedding some tears. This feeling keeps us coming back for even more depressing flicks.

1.Thinking Silence Is Awkward


Regardless of whether there is anything of value to say, many of us feel a burning desire to fill every silent moment with some type of conversation. What's so bad about just sitting quietly with someone, and why does prolonged silence make us feel so awkward?
Like many of our behaviors, it all comes down to our primal desire to belong and fit in with the group. According to psychologist Namkje Koudenburg, when the dance of conversation doesn't follow the traditional ebb and flow, we start to worry that something might not be right. We may wonder if we're uninteresting or not relevant, which makes us worry about our position in the group. On the other hand, when the dialogue is bouncing back and forth as expected, we feel socially validated.That said, not all cultures experience awkward silence in the same ways as Americans and others. For example, in Japan, a long pause can be a sign of respect, especially when considering a serious question. Cross-culture businesspeople are even trained on this etiquette, so they don't assume a silent Japanese colleague is unsatisfied with the negotiation or whatever else the conversation is about.The Finnish, Australian Aboriginals, and those in many Asian countries are also known for long, silent pauses in their talk and don't see them as a sign that the conversation has broken down. Rather, it's not uncommon for people from these countries to think Americans talk too much and dominate conversations. Incidentally, for those of us where nonstop talking is the norm, researchers say it only takes four seconds of silence for things to get awkward.
与我们的很多行为一样,这都是出于人类群体意识的本能反应。据心理学家Namkje Koudenburg研究发现,当交流模式和一般你来我往的情况不同时,我们就开始担心是不是交流过程中出现了什么问题。我们会思考是不是别人对自己所说的话不感兴趣,抑或是自己人微言轻不足以被重视。与之相反,如果交谈顺利,我们就会找到自身的存在感。即便如此,并不是所有文化都和美国文化中的沉默即尴尬一样。在日本,交流过程中出现长时间的停顿会被看成是一种尊重,尤其是在思考某些严肃问题的情况下。跨文化交际的商人甚至会专门学习这种礼仪。所以在他们看来,日本同事的沉默并不意味着对协议不满意,这也不会对交流产生任何影响。芬兰人、澳大利亚土著居民,以及许多亚洲人,他们在交流过程中经常会出现长时间沉默的情况,但那并不意味着话题的结束。这些国家的人也普遍认为美国人在交流过程中非常活跃且一直占据着话语的主动权。顺带一提的是,专家指出对于不喜欢交流过程中出现沉默的人来说,四秒的停顿就足以让谈话变得尴尬了。

审校:喵喵 编辑:listen 来源:前十网

  • trustworthyadj. 可信赖的
  • uninterestingadj. 无趣味的,乏味的;令人厌倦的
  • awkwardadj. 笨拙的,尴尬的,(设计)别扭的
  • indirectlyadv. 间接地
  • contrastn. 差别,对比,对照物 v. 对比,成对照 [计算机]
  • ebbn. 退潮,衰落 vi. 落潮,衰退
  • misfortunen. 不幸,灾祸
  • etiquetten. 礼仪,礼节,成规
  • screamn. 尖叫声 v. 尖叫,大笑
  • superiorityn. 优越性,优势