日期:2016-10-18 08:36



Europe France’s economy
欧洲 法国经济
Austerity stakes
A reluctant government faces the imperative of public-spending cuts
Franse’s finance minister, Pierre Moscovici, staged a charm offensive in London this week to improve his country’s battered economic image. Days after the European Commission had forecast that France would miss its budget-deficit target of 3% of GDP in 2013, a key promise of President Francois Hollande’s, Mr Moscovici urged people to look beyond “simplistic stereotypes”. The government may miss its target, he said, but it was making structural reforms to restore competitiveness and sound public finances.
法国的财务首相皮耶尔 莫斯科维奇本周在伦敦打了漂亮的一仗,改善了法国经济窘迫不堪的形象。欧盟委员会预测法国将难以兑现2013年GDP3%的预算赤字目标,而那是总统弗朗西斯奥朗德的重点承诺。数日之后,莫斯科维奇呼吁人们看穿“单纯的陈见”。他表示,也许政府不能如期完成目标,但它采取结构化改革以恢复竞争力,重塑夯实的公共财政。


The commission’s verdict was sobering. French GDP will grow by 0.1% this year, compared with a government forecast of 0.8%, and the deficit will reach 3.7%. After long defending the 3% target as a sign of its credibility, and insisting on overly ambitious growth forecasts, the government has abruptly switched message to plead for more time. And the commission clearly intends to opt for indulgence.
Without much struggle, it seems, France has won the argument that it should not be punished for its failure. It blames poor growth—the commission forecasts a euro-zone recession in 2013—and fears that more belt-tightening might make things worse. The French claim that, judged by the structural deficit, adjusted for the cycle, the government has made a bigger effort than at first appears. Mr Moscovici does not plan an emergency budget to squeeze the deficit back towards 3% this year, partly for fear of provoking “a political and social shock”. Jens Weidmann, the Bundesbank chief, said that “putting consolidation off would just shift the problem into the future.” But the German government stayed silent and Wolfgang Schauble, the finance minister, told a newspaper he was “fully confident” thatFrance was on the right track.
Mr Moscovici may get away with drift once, but he is unlikely to be indulged twice. As it is, letting him off the hook depends on taking seriously his efforts to sort out the public finances. This year, three-quarters of the effort to curb the deficit consists of higher taxes, says the Cour des Comptes, the national auditor. Yet with a total take of over 44% of GDP, Franceis already the most heavily taxed country in the euro. Companies and the rich have been squeezed; investment has gone on hold. The constitutional court has rejected Mr Hollande’s planned 75% top income-tax rate, although the government plans to revive it in another form. Even some Socialist deputies concede that the government cannot go on pushing up taxes.
但事不过三,莫斯科维奇很难继续得到包容。事实上,只有正视他为解决公共财政问题作出的努力才能让他免于责难。据国家审计员Cour des Comptes表示,今年控制赤字的努力有四分之三都用于征收高额税。法国已是欧元区课税最繁重的国家,税收占到GDP的44%。公司和富人保守压榨,投资搁置了。立宪法院拒绝了奥朗德设立最高75%所得税的计划,但政府计划通过别种形势实现它。甚至一些社会党代表也承认政府不能无止尽地抬高税收。
That leaves no choice but cuts in public spending. Mr Moscovici says these will account for “most” of the deficit reduction in the 2014 budget. This is where the hard part begins. The commission forecasts a deficit in 2014 of 3.9%, even higher than in 2013, as well as a rise in unemployment to 11%. The government has begun to float various ideas, such as means-testing family benefits and lengthening the period for pension contributions. A policy review is under way with the aim of eliminating duplication and cutting jobs. The prime minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, has set up a commission to look into pension reform. “This is all very different to what Socialist governments did before,” says an insider.
如此一来,法国别无选择,唯有削减公共支出。莫斯科维奇表示那会占到2014年预算赤字削减的“大部分”。艰险的征程由此展开。委员会预测2014年的赤字率会达到3.9%,甚至高于2013年的,与此同时失业率会上升至11%。政府集思广益,采用诸如家庭支付能力调查以及延长养老金的供期。首相吉恩马克 艾洛特已成立一个委员会调查养老金改革。“这与此前社会党政府的所作所为大相径庭。”内部人士透露说。
The difficulty is political. It may be evident to outsiders—and to some in the government—that, given its competitiveness and growth problems, France has no choice but to rethink its generous welfare state and well-staffed public sector. But a year after the 2012 election campaign, public debate has barely begun. Mr Hollande was elected on a promise to kick-start growth, cut unemployment and end austerity. Now he presides over recession, rising joblessness—and the need to impose more austerity on dumbfounded voters.



1.budget-deficit 预算赤字

例句:Britain is currently running a budget-deficit of nearly 12 per cent of GDP, one of the largest in Europe.

2.public spending 政府开支

例句:The social services account for a substantial part of public spending.

3.sort out 将...分类

例句:Davina was sorting out scraps of material.

4.push up 增加;提高

例句:When the flag wants to push up we pull it down.