II. New circumstances, new tasks, and new requirements facing China's diplomacy in the new era
The Congress analyzed the international and domestic situations and development trends, accurately identifying the historic juncture and international standing of our country. It also systematically answered a range of major questions, including what kind of world China wants to help shape and what kind of international relations China wants to forge. In so doing, it specified the target, mission, central tasks, principles, and strategies of China's diplomatic initiatives, thus laying out the top-level design and blazing a path ahead for carrying out China's major country diplomacy in the new era.
1. Making a well-founded assessment of the international situation facing China's diplomacy in the new era
The report to the 19th Congress offers an overall, objective and dialectical analysis of the international environment facing China and makes a range of major assessments, including that although the world is undergoing major developments, transformation, and adjustment, peace and development remain the themes and China is still in the midst of a period of strategic opportunity. These assessments serve as the grounding and launch pad for all of our diplomatic initiatives.
Peace and development remain the call of our day. The world has increasingly become a mutually-dependent and closely-interconnected community with a shared future. No country can address the many challenges facing humanity on its own, nor can any country afford to retreat into self-isolation. To pursue peace, development and mutually beneficial cooperation is the common aspiration shared by the people of all countries and also an inviolable and irreversible trend.
Today's world is undergoing profound and unprecedented changes. The trends of global multi-polarity, economic globalization, informatization of society, and cultural diversity are surging forward and emerging markets and numerous developing countries are rising rapidly, thus driving a rebalancing of global power and gradually reshaping the theory and practice of modern international relations. Therefore, strengthening global governance and reforming the global governance system are an imperative and general trend.
Yet, as a world we face growing uncertainties and destabilizing factors. Global economic growth lacks energy; the gap between rich and poor continues to widen; hotspot issues often arise in some regions; and unconventional security threats like terrorism, cyber-insecurity, major infectious diseases, and climate change continue to spread. As human beings we have many common challenges to face. These not only compose the major factors influencing world stability and peace, but also highlight the necessity and urgency for all countries to work together to build a community with a shared future for humanity.
Our overall assessment is that the world is now in the midst of profound and complex changes and will be so for a time to come; China is still in an important period of strategic opportunity for development; and the prospects are bright but the challenges are severe. We should, therefore, develop unshakable confidence, forge ahead with determination and be alert to dangers even in times of calm, so as to maintain strategic resolve and seize the strategic initiative in the face of a volatile international situation.
2. Laying out the target and mission of China's diplomacy in the new era
The report to the 19th National Congress points out that, "The Communist Party of China strives for both the wellbeing of the Chinese people and human progress. To make new and greater contributions for mankind is our Party's abiding mission." This statement specifies the target and mission of China's major country diplomacy in the new era, and clarifies that China's diplomacy takes as its duty both seeking prosperity for the Chinese people, and also working for the common progress of human society.
Realizing the national rejuvenation and leading the people in the pursuit of a better life is our Party's abiding goal and historic mission. Implementing China's major country diplomacy in the new era precisely means defending China's sovereignty, security, and development interests with resolve and with a focus on the overall concerns of the Party and the country. In so doing, China's major country diplomacy in the new era creates a more favorable international environment for peaceful development that preserves and extends the important period of strategic opportunity for development. This in turn provides a strong support and guarantee for delivering on the "Two Centenary Goals" and realizing the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation and the people's aspirations for a better life.
The Chinese Dream is closely connected with the dreams of the people of other countries; the Chinese Dream will benefit all. On this new journey of development in the new era China will continue to make its due contributions to world peace and development. We will provide new impetus for world development through our own stable development and opening up; conduct new inquiries into humanity's political advancement through developing the path, theory, system, and culture of socialism with Chinese characteristics; inject more stability and certainty into the world situation by being constructive in resolving international and regional issues; and contribute more Chinese wisdom and strength to long-term global development by driving the reform of the global governance system.
3. Expounding the central task of China's diplomacy in the new era
The report to the Congress makes it clear that China's major country diplomacy aims to foster a new type of international relations and build a community with a shared future for humanity. Moreover, promoting this aim is identified as one of the 14 points constituting the basic policy for upholding and developing socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era.
Building a community with a shared future for humanity calls for all people to work together to build an open, inclusive, clean, and beautiful world that enjoys lasting peace, universal security, and common prosperity. This idea sets forth a blueprint for realizing the common development, sustainable prosperity, and enduring peace and stability of human society. It reflects the excellence of cultures both Chinese and foreign, and common pursuits for the values of all humanity. It indicates the direction in which the international community should proceed, and is thus of far-reaching significance to China's peace and development and global prosperity and progress. This idea is a continuation and development of China's major diplomatic thought and propositions in different periods since the founding of the People's Republic of China, a major theoretical innovation of contemporary China's diplomacy, and an important theory which China contributes to the world; it has been mentioned in UN documents and its influence is far-reaching.
A new form of international relations characterized by mutual respect, fairness, justice, and mutual benefit is the basic path toward a community of shared future for humanity. Forging a new form of international relations calls for all countries, by upholding the principle of mutual respect, to cooperate in pursuing fair and just international relations and order, to stick together through thick and thin, and to achieve mutual benefit. Mutual respect is the precondition, fairness and justice is the guideline, and achieving mutual benefit is the target. The essence of this new form of international relations is to blaze a trail for developing state-to-state relations, and to pave the way and create conditions for building a community of shared future for humanity.
4. Enriching and developing the guiding principles of China's diplomacy in the new era
The report to the Congress reiterates China's continued commitment to peace, development, cooperation, and mutual benefit, and to a fundamental foreign policy goal of preserving world peace and common development. It also states that China remains firmly committed to pursuing an independent foreign policy of peace and to strengthening friendship and cooperation with other countries on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence. These guidelines for China's diplomacy have been tested through practice and fully demonstrate the consistency and continuity of China's foreign policies as well as their adaptability to contemporary trends. China must uphold these basic principles in its diplomacy for the long term.
Meanwhile, the report to the Congress further adds to and develops China's strategy of peaceful development in accordance with the new changes and features of the new era. The report not only stresses that China will stay on the path of peaceful development and remain committed to its mutually beneficial strategy of opening-up, but also highlights that it will uphold the greater good while pursuing shared interests, and will foster new thinking on common, comprehensive, cooperative, and sustainable security. It states that China will never pursue development at the expense of others' interests, nor will China ever give up its own legitimate rights and interests. It emphasizes in particular that no one should expect China to swallow any affront to its interests. In addition, the report promises that regardless its stage of development, China will never seek hegemony or engage in expansion, and will continue to safeguard world peace, contribute to global development, and uphold international order. This is asolemn promise that China has made to the world, reflecting the firm commitment of the Chinese people to peaceful development. At the same time, this is the strategic choice and sincere wish of the Chinese people and the major principle by which China's diplomacy in the new era must abide.
5. Furthering all aspects of the strategic plan for China's diplomacy in the new era
The report to the Congress draws up a strategic plan and raises clear requirements for performing the major tasks of China's diplomatic initiatives in the new era.
China will continue to improve its diplomatic layout and build a network of global partnerships. Therefore, it will promote coordination and cooperation with other major countries and work to build a framework for major country relations characterized by overall stability and balanced development. China will deepen relations with its neighbors according to the principles of amity, sincerity, mutual benefit, and inclusiveness and the policy of forging friendships and partnerships with its neighbors. China will, guided by the principle of upholding the greater good while pursuing shared interests and the principle of sincerity, real results, affinity, and good faith, work to strengthen solidary and cooperation with other developing countries. This continues and develops China's diplomatic policy of never entering into an alliance with any other country, which transcends the Cold War mentality that "if you are not my friend, you are my enemy." This provides a new way of thinking about relations between countries and new models for handling them.
China will remain firmly committed to the Belt and Road Initiative and further open up to the outside world on all fronts. To this end, China will adhere to the fundamental national policy of opening up and pursue development with open doors. China will closely integrate the Belt and Road Initiative with both building a community with a shared future for humanity and honoring the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development so as to build a new platform for international cooperation and create new drivers of shared development. This will boost regional economic integration and regional cooperation, and provide the world with more opportunities for mutually beneficial cooperation.
China will deepen its involvement in global governance and work to guide the reform of the international order. For this purpose, China will follow the principle of achieving shared growth through discussion and collaboration in global governance and push the global governance system in a more just and equitable direction. China will stand for democracy in international relations, and support the active role of the United Nations, as well as the efforts of other developing countries to increase their representation and strengthen their voice. This shows the role played by China as a participant in, shaper of, and contributor to the current international system and marks an important contribution made by China to the world as a major country with a strong sense of responsibility.
The five aspects mentioned above, including the situational assessment, target and mission, central tasks, guiding principles, and strategy, form the basic framework of China's major country diplomacy in the new era. Among these, some core concepts, such as building a community with a shared future, upholding the greater good while pursuing shared interests, the principle of achieving shared growth through discussion and collaboration, and the Belt and Road Initiative have been written into the CPC Constitution and incorporated as important components of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era. These concepts will guide China's diplomacy to successfully navigate the waters ahead.