幼儿英语语法顺口溜 第28期:宾语从句顺口溜
日期:2015-08-10 14:13

(单词翻译:单击)

省to不定式作宾补顺口溜

宾语从句三姊妹,that,if/whether,wh-/how展风采。
展风采有三关,引导词、语序、时态在把关。
主从时态要一致,陈述语序永不变。
陈述请你选that,疑问需用if/whether连。
特殊问句作宾从,原来问词不用换。
三关过后莫得意,人称、标点需注意。
留意变脸的if/when,从句的简化记心间。

一、三姊妹
宾语从句根据引导词的不同可分为三种类型:
1. 由that引导的宾语从句。如:
We knew (that)we should learn from each other.
2. 由if/whether引导的宾语从句。如:
Please tell me if/whether you have been to America.
3. 由who,where,how等连接代词或连接副词引导的宾语从句。如:
Can you tell me how I can get to the nearest post office?

二、三关
1. 引导词关
如果从句是陈述句,引导词用that(that在口语或非正式文体中常省略);如果从句是一般疑问句,引导词用if/whether;如果从句是特殊疑问句,引导词用由疑问词转换而来的疑问代词/副词。
2. 语序关
①陈述句变为宾语从句,语序不变,即仍用陈述语序。如:
He is an honest boy. The teacher said. →The teacher said(that)he was an honest boy.
②一般疑问句和特殊疑问句变为宾语从句,语序变为陈述语序。如:
Does he work hard?I wonder.→I wonder if/whether he works hard.
When did he leave?I don’t know. →I don’t know when he left.
3. 时态关
①如果主句是现在的时态,从句的时态可根据实际情况而定。如:
I have heard(that)he will come back next week.
②如果主句是过去的某种时态,那么从句的时态一定要用过去的某种时态。如:
He said(that)there were no classes yesterday.
注意:如果宾语从句表述的是客观真理、自然现象等时,不管主句是什么时态,从句都要用一般现在时。如:
He said that light travels much faster than sound.

三、人称的变化和标点的使用
1. 从句的主语如果是第一人称,变为宾语从句则与主句的主语一致;如果是第二人称,则与主句的宾语一致;如果是第三人称,不用变化。如:
“May I use your knife?”He asked me. →He asked me if he might use my knife.
“Do you know her telephone number?”He asked me. →He asked me if I know her telephone number.
2. 宾语从句的标点均由主句决定。主句是陈述句,用句号;主句是疑问句,用问号。如:
Who will give us a talk?I don’t know. →I don’t know who will give us a talk.
Do you know?Where does he live?→Do you know where he lives?

四、两副面孔
if和when既能引导时间状语从句,又能引导宾语从句。因此,遇到它们就要认真分析一下,它们究竟属于“两副面孔”的哪一副。如:
If it rains tomorrow,I won’t come.(时间状语从句)
I don’t know if it will rain tomorrow. (宾语从句)

五、从句的简化
1. 当主句谓语动词是find,see,watch,hear等感官动词时,从句常简化为“宾语+宾补”结构,宾补为不带to的不定式或V-ing形式。如:
She found that the wallet lay/was lying on the ground. →She found the wallet lie/lying on the ground.
2. 当主句谓语动词是hope,wish,decide,forget,plan,agree等,且主句主语与从句主语相同时,从句可简化为不定式结构。如:
She agreed that she could help me with my maths. →She agreed to help me with my maths.
3. 在连接代词/副词引导的宾语从句中,当从句主语与主句主语或间接宾语一致时,宾语从句可简化为“连接代词/副词+不定式”结构。如:
Can you tell me how I can get to the station?→Can you tell me how to get to the station?

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