Part I Writing (30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed. 30 minutes to write an essay explaining why it is unwise to put all your eggs in one basket. You can give examples to illustrate your point. You should write at least 150 words but no more than 200 words.
Part II Listening Comprehension (30 minutes)
Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.
1. A) They might be stolen goods.
B) They might be fake products.
C) They might be faulty products.
D) They might be smuggled goods.
2. A) They are civil servants.
B) They are job applicants.
C) They are news reporters.
D) They are public speakers.
3. A) The man has decided to quit his computer class.
B) The woman wants to get a degree in administration.
C) A computer degree is a must for administrative work.
D) The man went to change the time of his computer class.
4. A) A lot of contestants participated in the show.
B) The fifth contestant won the biggest prize.
C) It was not as exciting as he had expected.
D) It was sponsored by a car manufacturer.
5. A) Reading a newspaper column.
B) Looking at a railway timetable.
C) Driving from New York to Boston.
D) Waiting for someone at the airport.
6. A) He wears a coat bought in the mall.
B) He got a new job at the barbershop.
C) He had a finger hurt last night.
D) He had his hair cut yesterday.
7. A) He cannot appreciate the Picasso exhibition.
B) Even his nephew can draw as well as Picasso.
C) He is not quite impressed with modem paintings.
D) Some drawings by kindergarten kids are excellent.
8. A) He should not put the cart before the horse.
B) His conduct does not square with his words.
C) His attitude to student government has changed.
D) He has long been involved in student government.
Questions 9 to 11 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
9. A) She left her own car in Manchester.
B) Something went wrong with her car.
C) She wants to go traveling on the weekend.
D) Her car won't be back in a week's time.
10. A) Safety. B) Comfort. C) Size. D) Cost.
11. A) Third-party insurance.
B) Value-added tax.
Questions 12 to 15 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
12. A) How to update the basic facilities.
B) What to do to enhance their position.
C) Where to locate their plant.
D) How to attract investments.
13. A) Their road link to other European countries is fast.
B) They are all located in the south of France.
C) They are very close to each other.
D) Their basic facilities are good.
14. A) Try to avoid making a hasty decision.
B ) Take advantage of the train links.
C) Talk with the local authorities.
D) Conduct field surveys first.
15. A) Future product distribution.
B) Local employment policies.
C) Road and rail links for small towns.
D) Skilled workforce in the hilly region.
Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 16 to 18 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
16. A) One fifth of them were on bad terms with their sisters and brothers.
B) About one eighth of them admitted to lingering bitter feelings.
C) More than half of them were involved in inheritance disputes.
D) Most of them had broken with their sisters and brothers.
17. A) Less concern with money matters.
B) More experience in worldly affairs.
C) Advance in age.
D) Freedom from work.
18. A) They have little time left to renew contact with their brothers and sisters.
B) They tend to forget past unhappy memories and focus on their present needs.
C) They are more tolerant of one another.
D) They find close relatives more reliable.
Questions 19 to 22 are based on the passage you have just heard.
19. A) They have bright colors and intricate patterns.
B) They can only survive in parts of the Americas.
C) They are the only insect that migrates along fixed routes.
D) They have strong wings capable of flying long distances.
20. A) In a Michigan mountain forest.
B) In a Louisiana mountain forest.
C) In a Kentucky mountain forest.
D) In a Mexican mountain forest.
21. A) Each flock of butterflies lays eggs in the same states.
B) They start to lay eggs when they are nine months old.
C) Each generation in a cycle lays eggs at a different place.
D) Only the strongest can reach their destination to lay eggs.
22. A) Evolution of monarch butterflies.
B) Living habits of monarch butterflies.
C) Migration patterns of monarch butterflies.
D) Environmental impacts on monarch butterfly life.
Questions 23 to 25 are based on the passage you have just heard.
23. A) Time has become more limited.
B) Time has become more precious.
C) Time is money.
D) Time is relative.
24. A) Americans now attach more importance to the effective use of time.
B) Americans today have more free time than earlier generations.
C) The number of hours Americans work has increased steadily.
D) More and more Americans feel pressed for time nowadays.
25. A) Our interpersonal relationships improve.
B) Our work efficiency increases greatly.
C) Our living habits are altered.
D) Our behavior is changed.
Direction: In the section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks with the exact words you have just heard. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.
The first copyright law in the United States was passed by Congress in 1790. In 1976 Congress enacted the latest copyright law, __26__ the technological developments that had occurred since the passage of the Copyright Act of 1909. For example, in 1909, anyone who wanted to make a single copy of a __27__ work for personal use had to do so by hand. The very process __28__ a limitation on the quantity of materials copied. Today, a photocopier can do the work in seconds; the limitation has disappeared. The 1909 law did not provide full protection for films and sound recordings, nor did it __29__ the need to protect radio and television. As a result, __30__ of the law and abuses of the intent of the law have lessened the __31__ rewards of authors, artists, and producers. The 1976 Copyright Act has not prevented these abuses fully, but it has clarified the legal rights of the injured parties and given them an __32__ for remedy.
Since 1976 the Act has been __33__ to include computer software, and guidelines have been adopted for fair use of television broadcasts. These changes have cleared up much of the confusion and conflict that followed __34__ the 1976 legislation.
The fine points of the law are decided by the courts and by acceptable common practice over time. As these decisions and agreements are made, we modify our behavior accordingly. For now, we need to __35__ the law and its guidelines as accurately as we can and to act in a fair manner.
Part III Reading Comprehension (40 minutes)
Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.
Questions 36 to 45 are based on the following passage.
Millions of Americans are entering their 60s and are more concerned than ever about retirement. They know they need to save, but how much? And what exactly are they saving for-to spend more time __36__ the grandkids, go traveling, or start another career? It turns out that husbands and wives may have __37__ different ideas about the subject.
The deepest divide is in the way spouses envisage their lifestyle in their later years. Fidelity Investments Inc. found 41 percent of the 500 couples it surveyed __38__ on whether both or at least one spouse will work in retirement. Wives are generally right regarding their husbands' retirement age, but men __39__ the age their wives will be when they stop working. And husbands are slightly more __40__ about their standard of living than wives are.
Busy juggling (穷于应付) and families, most couples don't take time to sit down, __41__ or together, and think about what they would like to do 5, 10 or 20 years from now. They __42__ they are on the same page, but the __43__ is they have avoided even talking about it.
If you are self-employed or in a job that doesn't have a standard retirement age, you may be more apt to delay thinking about these issues. It is often a __44__ retirement date that provides the catalyst (催化剂) to start planning. Getting laid off or accepting an early-retirement __45__ can force your hand. But don't wait until you get a severance (遣散费) check to begin planning.
E) forthcoming F) illustrating
J) package K) radically
Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.
What If Middle-Class Jobs Disappear?
A) The most recent recession in the United States began in December 2007 and ended in June 2009, according to the National Bureau of Economic Research. However, two years after the official end of the recession, few Americans would say that economic troubles are behind us. The unemployment rate, in particular, remains above 9%. Some labor market indicators, such as the proportion of long-term unemployed, are worse now than for any postwar recession.
B) There are two widely circulated narratives to explain what's going on. The Keynesian narrative is that there has been a major drop in aggregate demand. According to this narrative, the slump can be largely cured by using monetary and fiscal (财政的) stimulus. The main anti-Keynesian narrative is that businesses are suffering from uncertainty and over-regulation. According to this narrative, the slump can be cured by having the government commit to and follow a more hands-off approach.
C) I want to suggest a third interpretation. Without ruling out a role for aggregate demand or for the regulatory environment, I wish to suggest that structural change is an important factor in the current rate of high unemployment. The economy is in a state of transition, in which the middle-class jobs that emerged after World War II have begun to decline. As Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee put it in a recent e-book Race Against the Machine: "The root of our problems is not that we're in a great recession, or a great stagnation (停滞) , but rather that we are in the early throes (阵痛) of a great restructuring."
D) In fact, I believe the Great Depression of the 1930s can also be interpreted in part as an economic transition. The impact of the internal combustion engine (内燃机) and the small electric motor on farming and manufacturing reduced the value of uneducated laborers. Instead, by the 1950s, a middle class of largely clerical (从事文秘工作的) workers was the most significant, part, of the labor force. Between 1930 and 1950, the United States economy underwent a great transition. Demand fell for human effort such as lifting, squeezing, and hammering. Demand increased for workers who could read and follow directions. The evolutionary process eventually changed us from a nation of laborers to a nation of clerks.
E) The proportion of employment classified as "clerical workers" grew from 5.2% in 1910 to a peak of 19.3% in 1980. (However, by 2000 this proportion had edged down to 17.4%.) Overall, workers classified as clerical workers, technical workers, managers and officials exceeded 50% of the labor force by 2000. Corresponding declines took place in the manual occupations. Workers classified as laborers, other than farm hands or miners, peaked at 11.4% of the labor force in 1920 but were barely 6% by 1950 and less than 4% by 2000. Farmers and farm laborers fell from 33% of the labor force in 1910 to less than 15% by 1950 and only 1.2% in 2000.
F) The introduction of the tractor and improvements in the factory rapidly reduced the demand for uneducated workers. By the 1930s, a marginal farm hand could not produce enough to justify his employment. Sharecropping, never much better than a subsistence occupation, was no longer viable (可行的). Meanwhile, machines were replacing manufacturing occupations like cigar rolling and glass blowing for light bulbs.
G) The structural-transition interpretation of the unemployment problem of the 1930s would be that the demand for uneducated workers in the United States had fallen, but the supply remained high. The high school graduation rate was only 8.8% in 1912 and still just 29% in 1931. By 1950, it had reached 59%. With a new generation of workers who had completed high school, the mismatch between skills and jobs had been greatly reduced.
H) What took place after World War II was not the revival of a 1920s economy, with its small farming units, urban manufacturing, and plurality of laborers. Instead, the 1950s saw the creation of a new suburban economy, with a plurality of white-collar workers. With an expanded transportation and communications infrastructure (基础建设) , businesses needed telephone operators, shipping clerks and similar occupations. If you could read, follow simple instructions, and settle into a routine, you could find a job in the post-war economy.
I) The trend away from manual labor has continued. Even within the manufacturing sector, the share of production and non-supervisory workers in manufacturing employment went from over 85% just after World War II to less than 70% in more recent, years. To put this another way, the proportion of white-collar work in manufacturing has doubled over the past 50 years. On the factory floor itself, work has become less physically demanding. Instead, it requires more cognitive skills and the ability to understand and carry out well-defined procedures.
J) As noted earlier, the proportion of clerical workers in the economy peaked in 1980. By that date, computers and advanced communications equipment had already begun to affect telephone operations and banking. The rise of the personal computer and the Internet has widened the impact of these technologies to include nearly every business and industry.
K) The economy today differs from that of a generation ago. Mortgage and consumer loan underwriters (风险评估人) have been replaced by credit scoring. Record stores have been replaced by music downloads. Book stores are closing, while sales of books on electronic readers have increased-Data entry has been moved off shore. Routine customer support also has been outsourced (外包) overseas.
L) These trends serve to limit the availability of well-defined jobs. If a job can be characterized by a precise set of instructions, then that job is a candidate to be automated or outsourced to modestly educated workers in developing countries. The result is what David Autor calls the polarization of the American job market.
M) Using the latest Census Bureau data, Matthew Slaughter found that from 2000 to 2010 the real earnings of college graduates (with no advanced degree) fell by more in percentage terms than the earnings of high school graduates. In fact, over this period the only education category to show an increase in earnings was those with advanced degrees.
N) The outlook for mid-skill jobs would not appear to be bright.. Communications technology and computer intelligence continue to improve, putting more occupations at risk. For example, marry people earn a living as drivers, including trucks and taxicabs. However, the age of driverless vehicles appears to be moving closer. Another example is in the field of education. In the fall of 2011, an experiment with an online course in artificial intelligence conducted by two Stanford professors drew tens of thousands of registrants (报名者). This increases the student-teacher ratio by a factor of close to a thousand. Imagine the number of teaching jobs that might be eliminated if this could be done for math, economics, chemistry, and so on.
O) It's important to bear in mind that when we offer a structural interpretation of unemployment, a "loss of jobs" means an increase in productivity. Traditionally, economists have argued that productivity increases are a good thing, even though they may cause unemployment for some workers in the short run. In the long run, the economy does not run out of jobs. Rather, new jobs emerge as old jobs disappear. The story we tell is that average well-being rises, and the more people are able to adapt, the more widespread the improvement becomes.
46. Even factory floor work today has become intellectually challenging rather than physically demanding.
47. Increases in productivity prove beneficial though some people may lose their jobs temporarily.
48. The unemployment rate remained high even two years after the government declared the recent recession was over.
49. The author suggests that the recent high unemployment rate is mainly caused by a decrease of middle-class jobs.
50. The creation of a suburban economy in the 1950s created lots of office jobs.
51. hi the first decade of the 21st century, only people with postgraduate degrees experienced an increase in earnings.
52. One economics theory suggests using monetary and fiscal stimulus to cope with an economic recession.
53. The popularity of online courses may eliminate many teaching jobs.
54. Computer technology has brought about revolutionary changes in the record and book business.
55. White-collar workers accounted for more than half of the labor force by the end of the 20th century.
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 56 to 60 are based on the following passage.
"Deep reading" - as opposed to the often superficial reading we do on the Web-is an endangered practice, one we ought to take steps to preserve as we would a historic building or a significant work of art. Its disappearance would jeopardize the intellectual and emotional development of generations growing up online, as well as the preservation of a critical part of our culture; the novels, poems and other kinds of literature that can be appreciated only by readers whose brains, quite literally, have been trained to understand them.
Recent research in cognitive science and psychology has demonstrated that deep reading-slow, immersive, rich in sensory detail and emotional and moral complexity-is a distinctive experience, different in kind from the mere decoding of words. Although deep reading does not, strictly speaking, require a conventional book, the built-in limits of the printed page are uniquely helpful to the deep reading experience. A book's lack of hyperlinks (超链接), for example, frees the reader from making decisions Should I click on this link or not? - allowing her to remain fully immersed in the narrative.
That immersion is supported by the way the brain handles language rich in detail, indirect reference and figures of speech; by creating a mental representation that draws on the same brain regions that would be active if the scene were unfolding in real life. The emotional situations and moral dilemmas that are the stuff of literature are also vigorous exercise for the brain, propelling us inside the heads of fictional characters and even, studies suggest, increasing our real-life capacity for empathy (认同).
None of this is likely to happen when we're browsing through a website. Although we call the activity by the same name, the deep reading of books and the information-driven reading we do on the Web are very different, both in the experience they produce and in the capacities they develop. A growing body of evidence suggests that online reading may be less engaging and less satisfying, even for the M digital natives" to whom it is so familiar. Last month, for example, Britain's National Literacy Trust released the results of a study of 34,910 young people aged 8 to 16. Researchers reported that 39% of children and teens read daily using electronic devices, but only 28% read printed materials every day. Those who read only onscreen were three times less likely to say they enjoy reading very much and a third less likely to have a favorite book. The study also found that young people who read daily only onscreen were nearly two times less likely to be above-average readers than those who read daily in print or both in print and onscreen.
56. What does the author say about "deep reading"?
A) It serves as a complement to online reading.
B) It should be preserved before it is too late.
C) It is mainly suitable for reading literature.
D) It is an indispensable part of education.
57. Wiry does the author advocate the reading of literature?
A) It helps promote readers' intellectual and emotional growth.
B) It enables readers to appreciate the complexity of language.
C) It helps readers build up immersive reading habits.
D) It is quickly becoming an endangered practice.
58. In what way does printed-page reading differ from online reading?
A) It ensures the reader's cognitive growth.
B) It enables the reader to be fully engaged.
C) It activates a different region of the brain.
D) It helps the reader learn rhetorical devices.
59. What do the studies show about online reading?
A) It gradually impairs one's eyesight.
B) It keeps arousing readers' curiosity.
C) It provides up-to-date information.
D) It renders reading less enjoyable.
60. What do we learn from the study released by Britain's National Literacy Trust?
A) Onscreen readers may be less competent readers.
B) Those who do reading in print are less informed.
C) Young people find reading onscreen more enjoyable.
D) It is now easier to find a favorite book online to read.
Questions 61 to 65 are based on the following passage.
Many current discussions of immigration issues talk about immigrants in general, as if they were abstract people in an abstract world. But the concrete differences between immigrants from different countries affect whether their coming here is good or bad for the American people.
The very thought of formulating immigration laws from the standpoint of what is best for the American people seems to have been forgotten by many who focus on how to solve the problems of illegal immigration.
It is hard to look for "the ideal outcome" on immigration in the abstract. Economics professor Milton Friedman once said, "The best is the enemy of the good," which to me meant that attempts to achieve an unattainable ideal can prevent us from reaching good outcomes that are possible in practice.
Too much of our current immigration controversy is conducted in terms of abstract ideals, such as "We are a nation of immigrants." Of course we are a nation of immigrants. But we are also a nation of people who wear shoes. Does it follow that we should admit anybody who wears shoes?
The immigrants of today are very different from those who arrived here a hundred years ago. Moreover, the society in which they arrive is different. To me, it is better to build a wall around the welfare state than the country.
But the welfare state is already here-and, far from having a wall built around it, the welfare state is expanding in all directions. We do not have a choice between the welfare state and open borders. Anything we try to do as regards immigration laws has to be done in the context of a huge welfare state that is already a major, inescapable fact of life.
Among other facts of life utterly ignored by many advocates of de facto amnesty (事实上的大赦) is that the free international movement of people is different from free international trade in goods. Buying cars or cameras from other countries is not the same as admitting people from those countries or any other countries. Unlike inanimate objects, people have cultures and not all cultures are compatible with the culture in this country that has produced such benefits for the American people for so long.
Not only the United States, but the Western world in general, has been discovering the hard way that admitting people with incompatible cultures is an irreversible decision with incalculable consequences. If we do not see that after recent terrorist attacks on the streets of Boston and London, when will we see it?
"Comprehensive immigration reform" means doing everything all together in a rush, without time to look before we leap, and basing ourselves on abstract notions about abstract people.
61. What does the author say about immigrants in America?
A) They all hope to gain citizenship and enjoy the welfare.
B) They come to America with different dreams and purposes.
C) Their background may determine whether they benefit the American people.
D) Their cultures affect the extent to which they will achieve success in America.
62. What does the author try to say by citing Milton Friedman's remark?
A) It is hardly practical to find an ideal solution to America's immigration problem.
B) Ideal outcomes could be produced only by comprehensive immigration reform.
C) As for immigration, good results cannot be achieved without good intentions.
D) The proper solution of immigration issues is an ideal of the American public.
63. What is the author's view regarding America's immigration policy?
A) America should open its borders to immigrants from different countries.
B) Immigrants have contributed greatly to the welfare of American people.
C) Unrestricted immigration will undermine the American welfare state.
D) There is no point building a wall around the American welfare state.
64. What is the author's purpose in citing the recent terrorist attacks on the streets of Boston and London?
A) To show that America should join hands with Europe in fighting terrorists.
B) To prove that it is high time America made comprehensive immigration reforms.
C) To prove that terrorism is the most dangerous threat to America and the world ill general.
D) To show that immigrants' cultural incompatibility with the host country has consequences.
65. What is the author's attitude towards "comprehensive immigration reform"?
A) Supportive. B) Negative. C) Wait-and-see. D) Indifferent.
Part Ⅳ Translation (30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to translate a passage from Chinese into English. You should write your answer on Answer Sheet 2.
最近，中国科学院(Chinese Academy of Sciences)出版了关于其最新枓学发现与未来一年展望的年度系列报告。系列报告包括三部分：科学发展报告、高技术发展报告、中国可持续发展战略报告。第一份报告包含中国科学家的最新发现，诸如新粒子研究与H7N9病毒研究的突破。该报告还突出强调了未来几年需要关注的问题。第二份报告公布了一些应用科学研究的热门领域，如3D打印和人造器官研究。第三份报告呼吁加强顶层设计，以消除工业升级中的结构性障碍，并促进节能减排。
Part Ⅰ Writing
Don't Judge a Book by Its Cover!
No one can deny the fact that people have always tended to be misguided by the pretty images. Although "Don't judge a book by its cover" is an old proverb widely acknowledged, people still fall into the trap of "good appearances" easily. We are living in a world full of temptations, one of which is "good appearances".
Due to the lack of experience and determined will, a host of people cannot distinguish right from wrong, thus making wrong decisions by only considering the beautiful appearances. Currently, there is an increase in the number of youngsters who are crazy about South Korean stars. The fans care nothing but the appearances of the stars. As a result, more and more young people place much emphasis upon appearances rather than other important qualities, such as honesty and loyalty. This can eventually result in distorted self-value, so we should value one's true qualities instead of the appearance.
From what we have discussed above, we can safely come to the conclusion that it is unwise to judge people only by their appearances. We people as a whole should cultivate correct attitudes towards beauty. Only in this way can we have a promising future!
Part Ⅱ Listening Comprehension
26. taking into consideration
34. in the wake of
Part III Reading Comprehension
Part IV Translation
Recently, Chinese Academy of Sciences released a series of annual reports about its latest scientific findings and a blueprint for the coming year. The reports cover three aspects: science development, high-tech development, and the sustainable development strategy of China. The first report includes the latest findings of Chinese scientists, including the research of new particles and the breakthrough of the H7N9 virus research. This report also emphasizes the issues which deserve our attention in the next few years. The second report announces the heated areas in applied science, for instance, 3D printing and the study of artificial organs. The third report lays emphasis on the top layer design, which can help to solve the structural problem in industrial upgrading and promote the energy-saving and emission reduction process.