Part I Writing (30 minutes)
Directions:For this part you are allowed 30 minutes to write an essay commenting on the remark "The greatest use of life is to spend it for something that will outlast it." You can give examples to illustrate your point and then explain what you will do to make your life more meaningful. You should write at least 150 words but no more than 200 words.
1. A) Dr. Smith's waiting room isn't tidy.
B) Dr. Smith enjoys reading magazines.
C) Dr. Smith has left a good impression on her.
D) Dr. Smith may not be a good choice.
2. A) The man will rent the apartment when it is available.
B) The man made a bargain with the landlady over the rent.
C) The man insists on having a look at the apartment first.
D) The man is not fully satisfied with the apartment.
3. A) Packing up to go abroad.
B) Brushing up on her English.
C) Drawing up a plan for her English course.
D) Applying for a visa to the United States.
4. A) He is anxious to find a cure for his high blood pressure.
B) He doesn't think high blood pressure is a problem for him.
C) He was not aware of his illness until diagnosed with it.
D) He did not take the symptoms of his illness seriously.
5. A) To investigate the causes of AIDS.
B) To raise money for AIDS patients.
C) To rally support for AIDS victims in Africa.
D) To draw attention to the spread of AIDS in Asia.
6. A) It has a very long history.
B) It is a private institution.
C) It was founded by Thomas Jefferson.
D) It stresses the comprehensive study of nature.
7. A) They can't fit into the machine.
B) They have not been delivered yet.
C) They were sent to the wrong address.
D) They were found to be of the wrong type.
8. A) The food served in the cafeteria usually lacks variety.
B) The cafeteria sometimes provides rare food for the students.
C) The students find the service in the cafeteria satisfactory.
D) The cafeteria tries hard to cater to the students' needs.
Questions 9 to 12 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
9. A) He picked up some apples in his yard.
B) He cut some branches off the apple tree.
C) He quarreled with his neighbor over the fence.
D) He cleaned up all the garbage in the woman's yard.
10. A) Trim the apple trees in her yard.
B) Pick up the apples that fell in her yard.
C) Take the garbage to the curb for her.
D) Remove the branches from her yard.
11. A) File a lawsuit against the man.
B) Ask the man for compensation.
C) Have the man's apple tree cut down.
D) Throw garbage into the man's yard.
12. A) He was ready to make a concession.
B) He was not prepared to go to court.
C) He was not intimidated.
D) He was a bit concerned.
Questions 13 to 15 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
13. A) Bad weather.
B) Human error.
C) Breakdown of the engines
D) Failure of the communications system.
14. A) Two thousand feet.
B) Twelve thousand feet.
C) Twenty thousand feet.
D) Twenty-two thousand feet.
15. A) Accurate communication is of utmost importance.
B) Pilots should be able to speak several foreign languages.
C) Air controllers should keep a close watch on the weather.
D) Cooperation between pilots and air controllers is essential.
Questions 16 to 19 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
16. A) His father caught a serious disease.
B) His mother passed away.
C) His mother left him to marry a rich businessman.
D) His father took to drinking.
17. A) He disliked being disciplined.
B) He was expelled by the university.
C) He couldn't pay his gambling debts.
D) He enjoyed working for a magazine.
18. A) His poems are heavily influenced by French writers.
B) His stories are mainly set in the State of Virginia.
C) His work is difficult to read.
D) His language is not refined.
19. A) He grieved to death over the loss of his wife.
B) He committed suicide for unknown reasons.
C) He was shot dead at the age of 40.
D) He died of heavy drinking.
Questions 20 to 22 are based on the passage you have just heard.
20. A) Women.
C) Manual workers.
D) School age children.
21. A) He taught his students how to pronounce the letters first.
B) He matched the letters with the sounds familiar to the learners.
C) He showed the learners how to combine the letters into simple words.
D) He divided the letters into groups according to the way they are written.
22. A) It can help people to become literate within a short time.
B) It was originally designed for teaching the English language.
C) It enables the learners to master a language within three months.
D) It is effective in teaching any alphabetical language to Brazilians.
Questions 23 to 25 are based on the passage you have just heard.
23. A) The crop's blooming period is delayed.
B) The roots of crops are cut off.
C) The topsoil is seriously damaged.
D) The growth of weeds is accelerated.
24. A) It's a new way of applying chemical fertilizer.
B) It's an improved method of harvesting crops.
C) It's a creative technique for saving labor.
D) It's a farming process limiting the use of ploughs.
25. A) In areas with few weeds and unwanted plants.
B) In areas with a severe shortage of water.
C) In areas lacking in chemical fertilizer.
D) In areas dependent on imported food.
Adults are getting smarter about how smart babies are. Not long ago. researchers learned that 4-day-old could understand (26)______ and subtraction. Now. British research psychologist Graham Schafer has discovered that infants can learn words for uncommon things long before they can speak. He found that 9-month-old infants could be taught, through repeated show-and-tell, to (27)______ the names of objects that were foreign to them, a result that (28)______ in some ways the received wisdom that, apart from learning to (29)______ things common to their daily lives, children don't begin to build vocabulary until well into their second year. "It's no (30)______ that children learn words, but the words they tend to know arc words linked to (31)______ situations in the home." explains Schafer. "This is the first demonstration that we can choose what words the children will learn and that they can respond to them with an unfamiliar voice (32)______ in an unfamiliar setting."
Figuring out how humans acquire language may (33)______ why some children learn to read and write later than others. Schafer says, and could lead to better treatments for developmental problems. What's more, the study of language (34)______ offers direct insight into how humans learn. "Language is a test case for human cognitive development." says Schafer. But parents eager to teach their infants should take note: even without being taught new words, a control group (35)______ the other infants within a few months. "This is not about advancing development." he says. "It's just about what children can do at an earlier age than what educators have often thought."
32. giving instructions
33. shed light on
35. caught up with
Questions 36 to 45 are based on the following passage.
Cell phones provide instant access to people. They are creating a major (36)______ in the social experiences of both children and adolescents. In one recent US survey, about half the teens polled said that their cell phone had (37)______ their communication with friends. Almost all said that their cell phone was the way they stayed in touch with peers, one-third had used the cell phone to help a peer in need- and about 80% said the phone made them feel safer. Teenagers in Australia, (38)______, said that their mobile phones provided numerous benefits and were an (39)______ part of their lives; some were so (40)______ to their phones that the researchers considered it an addiction. In Japan, too, researchers are concerned about cell phone addiction. Researchers in one study in Tokyo found that more than half of junior high school students used their phones to exchange e-mails with schoolmates more than 10 times a day.
Cell phones (41)______ social connections with peers across time and space. They allow young people to exchange moment-by-moment experiences in their daily lives with special partners and thus to have a more (42)______ sense of connection with friends. Cell phones also can (43)______ social tolerance because they reduce children's interactions with others who are different from them. In addition to connecting peers, cell phones connect children and parents. Researchers studying teenagers in Israel concluded that-in that (44)______ environment, mobile phones were regarded as "security objects" in parent-teen relationships-important because they provided the possibility of (45)______ and communication at all times.
【参考答案】 36-45 NJOLB HKFIC
Taste Not, Want Not
Feeding the 9 Billion: The Tragedy of Waste
A) By 2075, the United Nations' mid-range projection for global population is about 9.5 billion. This means that there could be an extra three billion mouths to feed by the end of the century, a period in which substantial changes are anticipated in the wealth, calorie intake and dietary preferences of people in developing countries across the world. Such a projection presents mankind with wide-ranging social, economic, environmental and political issues that need to be addressed today to ensure a sustainable future for all. One key issue is how to produce more food in a world of finite resources.
B) Today, we produce about four billion metric tonnes of food per year. Yet due to poor practices in harvesting, storage and transportation, as well as market and consumer wastage, it is estimated that 30-50% of all food produced never reaches a human stomach. Furthermore, this figure does not reflect the fact that large amounts of land, energy, fertilisers and water have also been lost in the production of foodstuffs which simply end up as waste. This level of wastage is a tragedy that cannot continue if we are to succeed in the challenge of sustainably meeting our future food demands.
Where Food Waste Happens
C) In 2010, the Institution of Mechanical Engineers identified three principal emerging population groups across the world, based on characteristics associated with their current and projected stage of economic development.
- Fully developed, mature, post-industrial societies, such as those in Europe, characterised by stable or declining populations which are increasing in age.
- Late-stage developing nations that are currently industrialising rapidly, for example China, which will experience declining rates of population growth, coupled with increasing affluence(富裕) and age profile.
- Newly developing countries that are beginning to industrialise, primarily in Africa, with high to very high population growth rates, and characterised by a predominantly young age profile.
D) Each group over the coming decades will need to address different issues surrounding food production, storage and transportation, as well as consumer expectations, if we are to continue to feed all our people.
E) In less-developed countries, such as those of sub-Saharan Africa and South-East Asia, wastage tends to occur primarily at the farmer-producer end of the supply chain. Inefficient harvesting, inadequate local transportation and poor infrastructure(基础设施) mean that produce is frequently handled inappropriately and stored under unsuitable farm site conditions.
F) In mature, fully developed countries such as the UK. more-efficient farming practices and better transport, storage and processing facilities ensure that a larger proportion of the food produced reaches markets and consumers. However, characteristics associated with modern consumer culture mean produce is often wasted through retail and customer behaviour.
G) Major supermarkets, in meeting consumer expectations, will often reject entire crops of perfectly edible fruit and vegetables at the farm because they do not meet exacting marketing standards for their physical characteristics, such as size and appearance.
H) Of the produce that does appear in the supermarket, commonly used sales promotions frequently encourage customers to purchase excessive quantities which, in the case of perishable foodstuffs, inevitably generate wastage in the home. Overall between 30% and 50% of what has been bought in developed countries is thrown away by the purchaser.
Better Use of Our Finite Resources
I) Wasting food means losing not only life-supporting nutrition but also precious resources, including land, water and energy. As a global society, therefore, tackling food waste will help contribute towards addressing a number of key resource issues.
J) Land Usage: Over the last five decades, improved farming techniques and technologies have helped to significantly increase crop yields along with a 12% expansion of farmed land use. However, a further increase in farming area without impacting unfavourably on what remains of the world's natural ecosystems appears unlikely. The challenge is that an increase in animal-based production will require more land and resources, as livestock(牲畜) farming demands extensive land use.
K) Water Usage: Over the past century, human use of fresh water has increased at more than double the rate of population growth. Currently about 3.8 trillion m3 of water is used by humans per year. About 70% of this is consumed by the global agriculture sector, and the level of use will continue to rise over the coming decades.
L) Better irrigation can dramatically improve crop yield and about 40% of the world's food supply is currently derived from irrigated land. However, water used in irrigation is often sourced unsustainably. In processing foods after the agricultural stage, there are large additional uses of water that need to be tackled in a world of growing demand. This is particularly crucial in the case of meat production, where beef uses about 50 times more water than vegetables. In the future, more effective washing techniques, management procedures, and recycling and purification of water will be needed to reduce wastage.
M) Energy Usage; Energy is an essential resource across the entire food production cycle, with estimates showing an average of 7-10 calories of input being required in the production of one calorie of food. This varies dramatically depending on crop, from three calories for plant crops to 35 calories in the production of beef. Since much of this energy comes from the utilisation of fossil fuels, wastage of food potentially contributes to unnecessary global warming as well as inefficient resource utilisation.
N) In the modern industrialised agricultural process-which developing nations are moving towards in order to increase future yields-energy usage in the making and application of fertilisers and pesticides represents the single biggest component. Wheat production takes 50% of its energy input for these two items alone. Indeed, on a global scale, fertiliser manufacturing consumes about 3-5% of the world's annual natural gas supply. With production anticipated to increase by 25% between now and 2030, sustainable energy sourcing will become an increasingly major issue. Energy to power machinery, both on the farm and in the storage and processing facilities, adds to the energy total, which currently represents about 3.1% of annual global energy consumption.
O) Rising population combined with improved nutrition standards and shifting dietary preferences will exert pressure for increases in global food supply. Engineers, scientists and agriculturalists have the knowledge, tools and systems that will assist in achieving productivity increases. However, pressure will grow on finite resources of land, energy and water. The potential to provide 60-100% more food by simply eliminating losses, while simultaneously freeing up land, energy and water resources for other uses, is an opportunity that should not be ignored. In order to begin tackling the challenge, the Institution recommends that:
- The UN Food and Agriculture Organisation work with the international engineering community to ensure governments of developed nations put in place programmes that transfer engineering knowledge, design know-how, and suitable technology to newly developing countries. This will help improve produce handling in the harvest, and immediate post-harvest stages of food production.
- Governments of rapidly developing countries incorporate waste minimisation thinking into the transport infrastructure and storage facilities currently being planned, engineered and built.
- Governments in developed nations devise and implement policy that changes consumer expectations. These should discourage retailers from wasteful practices that lead to the rejection of food on the basis of cosmetic characteristics, and losses in the home due to excessive purchasing by consumers.
46. Elimination of waste alone can potentially provide over sixty percent more food for the growing world population.
47. The production and application of fertilisers and pesticides account for the largest part of energy use in the modern industrialised agricultural process.
48. Consumers in developed countries throw away nearly half of their food purchases because they tend to buy in excessive quantities.
49. It is recommended that engineering knowledge and suitable technology in developed countries be introduced to developing countries to improve produce handling in the harvest.
50. The predicted global population growth means that ways have to be found to produce more food with finite resources.
51. A further expansion of farming area will adversely impact on the world's natural ecosystems.
52. Perfectly eatable fruit and vegetable crops often fail to reach supermarkets due to their size or physical appearance.
53. Poor practices in harvesting, storage and transportation have resulted in a waste of much of the food we produce and thus a waste of land and resources.
54. Food waste in less-developed countries happens mainly at the producers' end.
55. Beef consumes far more water to produce than vegetables.
【参考答案】 46-55 ONHOA JGBEL
Questions 56 to 60 are based on the following passage.
Call it the "learning paradox": the more you struggle and even fail while you're trying to learn new information, the better you're likely to recall and apply that information later.
The learning paradox is at the heart of "productive failure." a phenomenon identified by researcher Manu Kapur. Kapur points out that while the model adopted by many teachers when introducing students to new knowledge- providing lots of structure and guidance early on. until the students show that they can do it on their own-makes intuitive sense, it may not be the best way to promote learning. Rather, it's better to let the learners wrestle(较劲) with the material on their own for a while, refraining from giving them any assistance at the start. In a paper published recently. Kapur applied the principle of productive failure to mathematical problem solving in three schools.
With one group of students, the teacher provided strong "scaffolding"- instructional support-and feedback. With the teacher's help, these pupils were able to find the answers to their set of problems. Meanwhile, a second group was directed to solve the same problems by collaborating with one another, without any prompts from their instructor. These students weren't able to complete the problems correctly. But in the course of trying to do so. they generated a lot of ideas about the nature of the problems and about what potential solutions would look like. And when the two groups were tested on what they'd learned, the second group "significantly outperformed" the first.
The apparent struggles of the floundering(挣扎的) group have what Kapur calls a "hidden efficacy": they lead people to understand the deep structure of problems, not simply their correct solutions. When these students encounter a new problem of the same type on a test- they're able to transfer the knowledge they've gathered more effectively than those who were the passive recipients of someone else's expertise. In the real world, problems rarely come neatly packaged, so being able to discern their deep structure is key. But. Kapur notes, none of us like to fail, no matter how often Silicon Valley entrepreneurs praise the beneficial effects of an idea that fails or a start-up company that crashes and burns. So we need to "design for productive failure" by building it into the learning process. Kapur has identified three conditions that promote this kind of beneficial struggle. First, choose problems to work on that "challenge but do not frustrate. " Second, provide learners with opportunities to explain and elaborate on what they're doing. Third, give learners the chance to compare and contrast good and bad solutions to the problems. And to those students who protest this tough-love teaching style: you'll thank me later.
56. Why does the author call the learning process a paradox?
A) Pains do not necessarily lead to gains.
B) What is learned is rarely applicable in life.
C) Failure more often than not breeds success.
D) The more is taught, the less is learnt.
57. What does Kapur disapprove of in teaching?
A) Asking students to find and solve problems on their own.
B) Developing students' ability to apply what they learn.
C) Giving students detailed guidance and instruction.
D) Allowing students a free hand in problem solving.
58. What do people tend to think of providing strong "scaffolding" in teaching?
A) It will make teaching easier.
B) It is a sensible way of teaching.
C) It can motivate average students.
D) It will enhance students' confidence.
59. What kind of problem should be given to students to solve according to Kapur?
A) It should be able to encourage collaborative learning.
B) It should be easy enough so as not to frustrate students.
C) It should be solvable by average students with ease.
D) It should be difficult enough but still within their reach.
60. What can be expected of "this tough-love teaching style" (Line 8. Para. 5)?
A) Students will be grateful in the long run.
B) Teachers will meet with a lot of resistance.
C) Parents will think it too harsh on their kids.
D) It may not be able to yield the desired results.
Questions 61 to 65 are based on the following passage.
Vernon Bowman, a 75-year-old farmer from rural Indiana, did something that got him sued. He planted soybeans(大豆) sold as cattle feed. But Monsanto, the agricultural giant, insists it has a patent on the kind of genetically modified seeds Bowman used - and that the patent continues to all of the progeny(后代) of those seeds.
Have we really gotten to the point that planting a seed can lead to a high-stakes Supreme Court patent lawsuit? We have, and that case is Bowman vs. Monsanto, which is being argued on Tuesday. Monsanto's critics have attacked the company for its "merciless legal battles against small farmers," and they are hoping this will be the case that puts it in its place. They are also hoping the court's ruling will rein in patent law, which is increasingly being used to claim new life forms as private property.
Monsanto and its supporters, not surprisingly, see the case very differently. They argue that when a company like Monsanto goes to great expense to create a valuable new genetically modified seed, it must be able to protect its property interests. If farmers like Bowman are able to use these seeds without paying the designated fee, it will remove the incentives for companies like Monsanto to innovate.
Monsanto accused Bowman of patent infringement and won an $ 84 456 damage award. Rather than pay up or work out a settlement, Bowman decided to appeal- all the way to the Supreme Court. He said "Monsanto should not be able, just because they've got billions of dollars to spend on legal fees, to try to terrify farmers into obeying their agreements by massive force and threats."
The central issue in the case is whether patent rights to living things extend to the progeny of those things. Monsanto argues that its patents extend to later generations. But Bowman's supporters argue that Monsanto is trying to expand the scope of patents in ways that would enrich big corporations and hurt small farmers. They say that if Monsanto wins, the impact will extend far beyond agriculture-locking up property rights in an array of important areas. Knowledge Ecology International contends that the Supreme Court's ruling could have "profound effects" on other biotech industries.
If this were a Hollywood mov, the courageous old Indiana farmer would beat the profit-minded corporation before the credits rolled. But this is a real-life argument before a Supreme Court that has a well-earned reputation for looking out for the interests of large corporations. This case gives the court an opportunity to rein in the growing use of patents to protect genetically engineered crops and other life forms-but the court may well use it to give this trend a powerful new endorsement.
61. Why did Vernon Bowman get sued?
A) He used genetically modified seeds to feed his cattle.
B) He planted soybeans without paying for the patent.
C) He made a profit out of Monsanto's commercial secrets.
D) He obtained Monsanto's patented seeds by illegal means.
62. What are Monsanto's critics hoping the Supreme Court will do?
A) Allow small farmers to grow genetically modified soybeans.
B) Punish Monsanto for infringing on small farmers' interests.
C) Rule against Monsanto's excessive extension of its patent rights.
D) Abolish the patent law concerning genetically engineered seeds.
63. What is the argument of Monsanto and its supporters?
A) Patent rights should be protected to encourage innovation.
B) Bowman cannot plant the seeds without Monsanto's consent.
C) Monsanto has the right to recover the costs of its patented seeds.
D) Patent law on genetically modified seeds should not be challenged.
64. What is the key issue in the Bowman vs. Monsanto case?
A) Whether patent for seeds is harmful to agricultural production.
B) Whether the biotech industry should take priority over agriculture.
C) Whether measures should be introduced to protect small farmers.
D) Whether patent for living things applies to their later generations.
65. What do we learn from the last paragraph?
A) Hollywood mov usually have an unexpected, dramatic impact on real-life arguments.
B) The Supreme Court will try to change its reputation for supporting large corporations.
C) The Supreme Court is likely to persuade the parties concerned to work out a settlement
D) The ruling would be in Bowman's favor if the case were argued in a Hollywood mov.
How to Live a Meaningful Life?
Among all the highlighted topics, one is "how to live a meaningful life" 1. As for this topic, everyone's opinion varies. As the saying goes, "The greatest use of life is to spend it for something that will outlast it." I cannot agree with it more.
If one spends all his life pursuing benefits for himself, he will surely feel fruitless and meaningless when he gets old. From Nelson Mandela's life, we can get that he never wavered in his devotion to democracy, equality and learning. 2. His life has been an inspiration in South Africa and throughout the world. In a life that symbolizes the triumph of human spirit, Nelson Mandela accepted the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize. His life, though limited, definitely lasts longer. That's a life worth living.
Therefore, if there is a way to make my life more meaningful, I believe it should be to find something I'm interested in and also is helpful to others or the whole society. Only in this way can I keep my passion throughout my life.
1-25 DCBCD ABABD ACBCA BCCDA DACDB
32. giving instructions
33. shed light on
35. caught up with
36-45 NJOLB HKFIC
46-55 ONHOA JGBEL
56-65 CCBDA BCADD
The world-famous Silk Road is a series of routes that connect the East and the West. The Silk Road extends more than 6000 kilometers and gets its name from ancient China's silk trade. The trade on the Silk Road has played an important role in the development of the civilizations of China, South Asia, Europe and the Middle East. It was through the Silk Road that The Four Great Inventions of ancient China, namely papermaking, gunpowder, compass and printing, had been introduced to other parts of the world. Similarly, China's silk, tea and porcelain had also been spread all over the world through it. The exchange of material culture is bilateral. Europe, in return, had exported various commodities and plants through the Silk Road, which met the needs of Chinese market.