Part I Writing (30minutes)
Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning)(15 minutes)
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1.For questions 1-7,choose the best answer from the four choices marked A),B),C) and D).For questions 8-10,complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
That’s enough, kids
It was a lovely day at the park and Stella Bianchi was enjoying the sunshine with her two children when a young boy, aged about four, approached her two-year-old son and pushed him to the ground.
“I’d watched him for a little while and my son was the fourth or fifth child he’d shoved,” she says.” I went over to them, picked up my son, turned to the boy and said, firmly, ’No, we don’t push,” What happened next was unexpected.
“The boy’s mother ran toward me from across the park,” Stella says,” I thought she was coming over to apologize, but instead she started shouting at me for disciplining her child, All I did was let him know his behavior was unacceptable. Was I supposed to sit back while her kid did whatever he wanted, hurting other children in the process?”
Getting your own children to play nice is difficult enough. Dealing with other people’s children has become a minefield.
In my house, jumping on the sofa is not allowed. In my sister’s house it’s encouraged. For her, it’s about kids being kids:”If you can’t do it at three, when can you do it?”
Each of these philosophies is valid and, it has to be said, my son loves visiting his aunt’s house. But I find myself saying “no” a lot when her kids are over at mine. That’s OK between sisters but becomes dangerous territory when you’re talking to the children of friends or acquaintances.
“Kids aren’t all raised the same,” agrees Professor Naomi White of Monash University.” But there is still an idea that they’re the property of the parent. We see our children as an extension of ourselves, so if you’re saying that my child is behaving inappropriately, then that’s somehow a criticism of me.”
In those circumstances, it’s difficult to know whether to approach the child directly or the parent first. There are two schools of thought.
“I’d go to the child first,” says Andrew Fuller, author of Tricky Kids. Usually a quiet reminder that ’we don’t do that here’ is enough. Kids nave finely tuned antennae (直觉) for how to behave in different settings.”
He points out bringing it up with the parent first may make them feel neglectful, which could cause problems. Of course, approaching the child first can bring its own headaches, too.
This is why White recommends that you approach the parents first. Raise your concerns with the parents if they’re there and ask them to deal with it,” she says.
Asked how to approach a parent in this situation, psychologist Meredith Fuller answers:”Explain your needs as well as stressing the importance of the friendship. Preface your remarks with something like: ’I know you’ll think I’m silly but in my house I don’t want…’”
When it comes to situations where you’re caring for another child, white is straightforward: “common sense must prevail. If things don’t go well, then have a chat.”
There’re a couple of new grey areas. Physical punishment, once accepted from any adult, is no longer appropriate. “A new set of considerations has come to the fore as part of the debate about how we handle children.”
For Andrew Fuller, the child-centric nature of our society has affected everyone:” The rules are different now from when today’s parents were growing up,” he says, “Adults are scared of saying: ’don’t swear’, or asking a child to stand up on a bus. They’re worried that there will be conflict if they point these things out – either from older children, or their parents.”
He sees it as a loss of the sense of common public good and public courtesy (礼貌), and says that adults suffer form it as much as child.
Meredith Fuller agrees: “A code of conduct is hard to create when you’re living in a world in which everyone is exhausted from overwork and lack of sleep, and a world in which nice people are perceived to finish last.”
“it’s about what I’m doing and what I need,” Andrew Fuller says. ”the days when a kid came home from school and said, “I got into trouble”. And dad said, ‘you probably deserved it’. Are over. Now the parents are charging up to the school to have a go at teachers.”
This jumping to our children’s defense is part of what fuels the “walking on eggshells” feeling that surrounds our dealings with other people’s children. You know that if you remonstrate(劝诫) with the child, you’re going to have to deal with the parent. it’s admirable to be protective of our kids, but is it good?
“Children have to learn to negotiate the world on their own, within reasonable boundaries,” White says. “I suspect that it’s only certain sectors of the population doing the running to the school –better –educated parents are probably more likely to be too involved.”
White believes our notions of a more child-centred, it’s a way of talking about treating our children like commodities(商品). We’re centred on them but in ways that reflect positively on us. We treat them as objects whose appearance and achievements are something we can be proud of, rather than serve the best interests of the children.”
One way over-worked, under-resourced parents show commitment to their children is to leap to their defence. Back at the park, Bianchi’s intervention(干预) on her son’s behalf ended in an undignified exchange of insulting words with the other boy’s mother.
As Bianchi approached the park bench where she’d been sitting, other mums came up to her and congratulated her on taking a stand. “Apparently the boy had a longstanding reputation for bad behaviour and his mum for even worse behaviour if he was challenged.”
Andrew Fuller doesn’t believe that we should be afraid of dealing with other people’s kids. “look at kids that aren’t your own as a potential minefield,” he says. He recommends that we don’t stay silent over inappropriate behaviour, particularly with regular visitors.
1. What did Stella Bianchi expect the young boy’s mother to do when she talked to him?
A) make an apology B) come over to intervene
C) discipline her own boy D) take her own boy away
2. What does the author say about dealing with other people’s children?
A) it’s important not to hurt them in any way
B) it’s no use trying to stop their wrongdoing
C) it’s advisable to treat them as one’s own kids
D) it’s possible for one to get into lots of trouble
3. According to professor Naomi white of Monash university, when one’s kids are criticized, their parents will probably feel
A) discouraged B) hurt C) puzzled D) overwhelmed
4. What should one do when seeing other people’s kids misbehave according to Andrew fuller?
A) talk to them directly in a mild way B) complain to their parents politely
C) simply leave them alone D) punish them lightly
5. Due to the child-centric nature of our society, ——————
A) parents are worried when their kids swear at them
B) people think it improper to criticize kids in public
C) people are reluctant to point our kids’ wrongdoings
D) many conflicts arise between parents and their kids
6. In a world where everyone is exhausted from over work and lack of sleep, .
A) it’s easy for people to become impatient
B) it’s difficult to create a code of conduct
C) it’s important to be friendly to everybody
D) it’s hard for people to admire each other
7. How did people use to respond when their kids got into trouble at school?
A) they’d question the teachers B) they’d charge up to the school
C) they’d tell the kids to clam down D) They’d put the blame on their kids
8. Professor white believes that the notions of a more child-centred society should be————.
9. According to professor white, today’s parents treat their children as something they————.
10. Andrew fuller suggests that , when kids behave inappropriately, people should not————.
Part III Listening Comprehension
Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A),B),C)and D),and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
A)Only true friendship can last long.
B)Letter writing is going out of style.
C)She keeps in regular touch with her classmates.
D)She has lost contact with most of her old friends.
12. A) A painter. C) A porter.
B) A mechanic. D) A carpenter
13. A) Look for a place near her office. C) Make inquiries elsewhere.
B) Find a new job down the street. D) Rent the $600 apartment.
14.A) He prefers to wear jeans with a larger waist.
B) He has been extremely busy recently.
C) He has gained some weight lately.
D) He enjoyed going shopping with Jane yesterday.
15.A)The woman possesses a natural for art.
B) Women have a better artistic taste than men.
C) He isn’t good at abstract thinking.
D) He doesn’t like abstract paintings.
16.A) She couldn’t have left her notebook in the library.
B) she may have put her notebook amid the journals.
C) she should have made careful notes while doing reading.
D) she shouldn’t have read his notes without his knowing it.
17. A)she wants to get some sleep C) she has a literature class to attend
B) she needs time to write a paper D)she is troubled by her sleep problem
18.A)He is confident he will get the job.
B)His chance of getting the job is slim.
C)It isn’t easy to find a qualified sales manager.
D)The interview didn’t go as well as he expected.
Questions 19 to 21 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
19.A)He can manage his time more flexibly.
B)He can renew contact with his old friends.
C)He can concentrate on his own projects.
D)He can learn to do administrative work.
20.A)Reading its ads in the newspapers.
B)Calling its personnel department.
C)Contacting its manager.
D)Searching its website.
21.A)To cut down its production expenses.
B)To solve the problem of staff shortage.
C)To improve its administrative efficiency.
D)To utilize its retired employees’ resources.
Questions 22 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
22.A)Buy a tractor.
B)Fix a house.
C)See a piece of property.
D)Sing a business contract.
23.A)It is only forty miles form where they live.
B)It is a small one with a two-bedroom house.
C)It was a large garden with fresh vegetables.
D)It has a large garden with fresh vegetables.
24.A)Growing potatoes will involve less labor.
B)Its soil may not be very suitable for corn.
C)It may not be big enough for raising corn.
D)Raising potatoes will be more profitable.
Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D).Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
26 A)To introduce the chief of the city’s police force
B)To comment on a talk by a distinguished guest
C)To address the issue of community security
D)To explain the functions of the city council
27 A)He has distinguished himself in city management
B)He is head of the International Police Force
C)He completed his higher education abroad
D)He holds a master’s degree in criminology
28 A)To coordinate work among police departments
B)To get police officers closer to the local people
C)To help the residents in times of emergency
D)To enable the police to take prompt action
30 A)people differ greatly in their ability to communicate
B)there are numerous languages in existence
C)Most public languages are inherently vague
D)Big gaps exist between private and public languages
31 A)it is a sign of human intelligence
B)in improves with constant practice
C)it is something we are born with
D)it varies from person to person
32 A)how private languages are developed
B)how different languages are related
C)how people create their languages
D)how children learn to use language
33 A)she was a tailor
B)she was an engineer
C)she was an educator
D)she was a public speaker
A)Basing them on science-fiction movies.
B) Including interesting examples in them
C) Adjusting them to different audiences
D) Focusing on the latest progress in space science
A) Whether spacemen carry weapons
B) How spacesuits protect spacemen
C) How NASA trains its spacemen
D) What spacemen cat and drink
Directions : In this section .you will hear a passage three time. When the passage is read for first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. when the passage is read for the first time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36to43 with the exact words you have just heard. For these blanks, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.
Crime is increasing world wide. There is every reason to believe the (36)____will continue through the next few decades.
Crime rates have always been high in multicultural, industrialized societies such as the United States, but a new(37)____has appeared on the world(38)____rapidly rising crime rates in nations that previously reported few(39)____. Street crimes such as robbery, rape (40)___and auto theft are clearly rising(41)___in eastern European countries such as Hungary and in western European nations such as the united Kingdom.
What is driving this crime (42)____?There are no simple answers. Still，there are certain conditions(43) _______with rising crime increasing heterogeneity (混杂) of populations, greater cultural pluralism, higher immigration, democratization of government,(44) ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________
These conditions are increasingly observable around the world . For instance, cultures that were previously isolated and homogeneous(同种类的) ,such as Japan, Denmark and Greece (45)____________________________________________________________________________
Multiculturalism can be a rewarding, enriching experience, but it can also lead to a clash of values. Heterogeneity in societies will be the rule in the twenty-first century, and (46)_________________________________________________
Part IV Reading Comprehension (Reading in depth)
A bookless life is an incomplete life. Books influence the depth and breadth of life. They meet the natural______47_____for freedom, for expression, for creativity and beauty of life. Learners, therefore, must have books, and the right type of book, for the satisfaction of their need. Readers turn______48___ to books because their curiosity concerning all manners of things, their eagerness to share in the experiences of others and their need to ____49 ____ from their own limited environment lead them to find in books food for the mind and the spirit. Through their reading they find a deeper significance to life as books acquaint them with life in the world as it was and it is now. They are presented with a __50 _____ of human experiences and come to ___51 ____ other ways of thought and living. And while ____52 __ their own relationships and responses to life , the readers often find that the ___53 __ in their stories are going through similar adjustments, which help to clarify and give significance to their own.
Books provide ___54 ____ material for readers’ imagination to grow. Imagination is a valuable quality and a motivating power, and stimulates achievement. While enriching their imagination, books __55 ___their outlook, develop a fact-finding attitude and train them to use leisure ___56 ___. The social and educational significance of the readers’ books cannot be overestimated in an academic library.
A. Abundant B. Characters C. Communicating D. Completely E. Derive F. Desire
G. Diversity H. Escape I.Establishing J.Narrow K. Naturally L.Personnel
M.Properly N.Respect O. Widen
Directions There are 2 passages in this section, each passage is followed by some question or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A B C D.You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Question 57 to 61 based on the following passage.
If you are a male and you are reading this ,congratulations: you are a survivor .According to statistics .you are more than twice as likely to die of skin cancer than a woman ,and nine times more likely to die of AIDS. Assuming you make it to the end of your natural term, about 78 years for men in Australia, you will die on average five years before a woman.
There are many reasons for this-typically, men take more risks than woman and are more likely to drink and smoke but perhaps more importantly, men don’t go to the doctor.
“Men aren’t seeing doctors as often as they should, ” says Dr. Gullotta, “This is particularly so for the over-40s,when diseases tend to strike.”
Gullotta says a healthy man should visit the doctor every year or two. For those over 45, it should be at least once a year.
Two months ago Gullotta saw a 50-year-old ma who had delayed doing anything about his smoker’s cough for a year.
“When I finally saw him it had already spread and he has since died from lung cancer” he says, “Earlier detection and treatment may not have cured him, but it would have prolonged this life”
According to a recent survey, 95%of women aged between 15 and early 40s see a doctor once a year, compared to 70% of men in the same age group.
“A lot of men think they are invincible （不可战胜的）”Gullotta says “They only come in when a friend drops dead on the golf course and they think” Geez, if it could happen to him.
Then there is the ostrich approach,” some men are scared of what might be there and would rather not know, ” says Dr. Ross Cartmill.
“Most men get their cars serviced more regularly than they service their bodies,” Cartmill says .He believes most diseases that commonly affect men could be addressed by preventive check-ups
Regular check-ups for men would inevitably place strain on the public purse, Cartmill says.” But prevention is cheaper in the long run than having to treat the diseases. Besides, the ultimate cost is far greater: it is called premature death.”
57.Why does the author congratulate his male readers at the beginning of the passage?
A. They are more likely to survive serious diseases today.
B. Their average life span has been considerably extended.
C. They have lived long enough to read this article.
D. They are sure to enjoy a longer and happier live.
58。What does the author state is the most important reason men die five years earlier on average than women?
A. men drink and smoke much more than women
B. men don’t seek medical care as often as women
C. men aren’t as cautions as women in face of danger
D. men are more likely to suffer from fatal diseases
59. Which of the following best completes the sentence “Geez, if it could happen to him，————’(line2,para,8)?
A. it could happen to me, too
B. I should avoid playing golf
C. I should consider myself lucky
D. it would be a big misfortune
60what does Dr. Ross Cartmill mean by “the ostrich approach”(line q para.9)
A. a casual attitude towards one’s health conditions
B. a new therapy for certain psychological problems
C. refusal to get medical treatment for fear of the pain involved
D. unwillingness to find out about one’s disease because of fear
61. What does Cartmill say about regular check-ups for men?
A.They may increase public expenses
B.They will save money in the long run
C.They may cause psychological strains on men
D.They will enable men to live as long as women
Question 62 to 66 are based on the following passage
High-quality customer service is preached(宣扬) by many ,but actually keeping customers happy is easier said than done
Shoppers seldom complain to the manager or owner of a retail store, but instead will alert their friends, relatives, co-workers, strangers-and anyone who will listen.
Store managers are often the last to hear complaints, and often find out only when their regular customers decide t frequent their competitors, according to a study jointly conducted by Verde group and Wharton school
“Storytelling hurts retailers and entertains consumers,” said Paula Courtney, President of the Verde group.” the store loses the customer, but the shopper must also find a replacement.”
On average, every unhappy customer will complain to at least four other, and will no longer visit the specific store for every dissatisfied customer, a store will lose up to three more due to negative reviews. The resulting “snowball effect” can be disastrous to retailers.
According to the research, shoppers who purchased clothing encountered the most problems. ranked second and third were grocery and electronics customers.
The most common complaints include filled parking lots, cluttered (塞满了的) shelves, overloaded racks, out-of-stock items, long check-out lines, and rude salespeople.
During peak shopping hours, some retailers solved the parking problems by getting moonlighting local police to work as parking attendants. Some hired flag wavers to direct customers to empty parking spaces. This guidance climinated the need for customers to circle the parking lot endlessly, and avoided confrontation between those eyeing the same parking space.
Retailers can relieve the headaches by redesigning store layouts, pre-stocking sales items, hiring speedy and experienced cashiers, and having sales representatives on hand to answer questions.
Most importantly, salespeople should be diplomatic and polite with angry customers.
“Retailers who’re responsive and friendly are more likely to smooth over issues than those who aren’t so friendly.” said Professor Stephen Hoch. “Maybe something as simple as a greeter at the store entrance would help.”
Customers can also improve future shopping experiences by filing complaints to the retailer, instead of complaining to the rest of the world. Retailers are hard-pressed to improve when they have no idea what is wrong.
62. Why are store managers often the last to hear complaints?
A Most customers won’t bother to complain even if they have had unhappy experiences.
B Customers would rather relate their unhappy experiences to people around them.
C Few customers believe the service will be improved.
D Customers have no easy access to store managers.
63. What does Paula Courtney imply by saying “ … the shopper must also find a replacement” (Line 2, Para. 4)?
A New customers are bound to replace old ones.
B It is not likely the shopper can find the same products in other stores.
C Most stores provide the same
D Not complaining to the manager causes the shopper some trouble too.
64. Shop owners often hire moonlighting police as parking attendants so that shoppers_____
A can stay longer browsing in the store
B won’t have trouble parking their cars
C won’t have any worries about security
D can find their cars easily after shopping
65. What contributes most to smoothing over issues with customers?
A Manners of the salespeople
B Hiring of efficient employees
C Huge supply of goods for sale
D Design of the store layout.
66. To achieve better shopping experiences, customers are advised to _________.
A exert pressure on stores to improve their service
B settle their disputes with stores in a diplomatic way
C voice their dissatisfaction to store managers directly
D shop around and make comparisons between stores
Part V Cloze
Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A,B,C,D on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on answer sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Playing organized sports is such a common experience in the United States that many children and teenagers that them for granted. This is especially true 67 children from families and communities that have the resources needed to organize and 68 sports programs and make sure that there is easy 69 to participation opportunities. Children in low-income families and poor communities are 70 likely to take organized youth sports for granted because they often 71 the resources needed to pay for participation 72 , equipment, and transportation to practices and games 73 their communities do not have resources to build and 74 sports fields and facilities.
Organized youth sports 75 appeared during the early 20th century in the United States and other wealthy nations. They were originally developed 76 some educators and developmental experts 77 that the behavior and character of children were 78 influenced by their social surrounding and everyday experiences. This 79 many people to believe that if you could organize the experiences of children in 80 ways, you could influence the kinds of adults that those children would become.
This belief that the social 81 influenced a person’s overall development was very 82 to people interested in progress and reform in the United States 83 the beginning of the 20th century. It caused them to think about 84 they might control the experiences of children to 85 responsible and productive adults. They believed strongly that democracy depended on responsibility and that a 86 capitalist economy depended on the productivity of worker.
67. A. among B. within C. on D. towards
68. A. spread B. speed C. spur D. sponsor
69. A. access B. entrance C. chance D. route
70 A. little B. less C. more D. much
71. A. shrink B. tighten C. limit D. lack
72. A. bill B accounts C. fees D. fare
73. A. so B. as C. and D. but
74. A. maintain B. sustain C. contain D. entertain
75.A. last B. first C. later D. finally
76.A. before B. while C. until D. when
77.A. realized B. recalled C. expected D. exhibited
78.A. specifically B. excessively C. strongly D. exactly
79. A. moved B. conducted C. put D. led
80. A. precise B. precious C. particular D. peculiar
81.A. engagement B. environment C.s tate D. status
82.A. encouraging B. disappointing C. upsetting D. surprising
83.A. for B. with C. over D. at
84.A. what B. how C. whatever D. however
85.A. multiply B. manufacture C. produce D. provide
86.A. growing B. breeding C. raising D. flying
Part VI Translation
Directions: Complete the sentences by translating into English the Chinese given in brackets. Please write your translation on answer sheet 2
87.Medical researchers are painfully aware that there are many problems (他们至今还没有答案)
88. (大多数父母所关心的) is providing the best education possible for their children.
89.You’d better take a sweater with you 。(以防天气变冷)
90.Throught the project, many people have received training and .(决定自己创业)
91.the anti-virus agent was not known .(直到一名医生偶然发现了它)
1. A 2. D 3. B 4. A 5. C 6. B 7. D
9. can be proud of
10. stay silent
11. D) She has lost contact with most of her old friends.
12. D) A painter.
13. C) Make inquires elsewhere.
14. C) He has gained some weight lately.
15. D) He doesn't like abstract paintings.
16. B) She may have put her notebook amid the journals.
17. A) She wants to get some sleep.
18. B) His chance of getting the job is slim.
19. A He can manage his time more flexible.
20. D Searching its website.
21. D To utilize its retired employee's resources.
22 C See a piece of property.
23. B It is a small one with a two-bedroom house.
24. C It may now be big enough for raising corn.
25. A Finances.
26. A) To introduce the chief of the city' police force.
27. D) He holds a master's degree in criminology.
28. B) To get police officers closer to the local people.
29. C) Effective.
30. B) There are numerous languages in existence.
31. C) It is something we are born with.
32. D) How children learn to use language.
33. B) She was an engineer.
34. C) Adjusting them to different audiences.
35. A) Whether spacemen carry weapons.
Crime is increasing worldwide. There is every reason to believe the trend will continue through the next few decades. Crime rates have always been high in multicultural industrialized societies such as the United States. But a new phenomenon has appeared on the world scene, rapidly rising crime rates in nations that previously reported few offenses. Street crimes such as robbery, rape, murder and auto theft are clearly rising, particularly in eastern European countries such as Hungary and in western European nations such as the United Kingdom. What is driving this crime explosion? There are no simple answers. Still, there're certain conditions associated with rising crime. Increasing heterogeneity of populations, greater cultural pluralism, higher immigration, democratization of governments, changing national borders, greater economic growth, and the lack of accepted social ideas of right and wrong. These conditions are increasing observable around the world. For instance, cultures that were previously isolated and homogeneous such as Japan, Denmark, and Greece are now facing the sort of cultural variety that has been common in America for most of its history. Multiculturalism can be a rewarding, enriching experience, but it can also lead to a clash of values. Heterogeneity in societies will be the rule in the 21st century, and failure to recognize and plan for such diversity can lead to serious crime problems.
Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth)
47. F/ desire
48. K/ naturally
49. H/ escape
50. G/ diversity
51. N/ respect
52. I/ establishing
53. B/ characters
54. A/ abundant
55. O/ widen
56. M/ properly
57 A they are more likely to survive serious diseases today.
58 B men don't seek medical care as often as women,
59 A it could happen to me, too
60 D unwillingness to find out about one's decease because of fear.
61 B they will save money in the long run.
62 B customer would rather relate their unhappy experiences to people around them.
63 C most stores provide the same kind of service.
64 B won't have to trouble parking their cars.
65 A manners of the salespeople
66 C voice their dissatisfaction to store managers directly.
PART V Cloze
67. A. among
68. D. sponsor
69. A. access
70. B. less
71. D. lack
72. C. fees
73. B. as
74. A. maintain
75. B. first
76. D. when
77. A. realized
78. C. strongly
79. D. led
80. C. particular
81. B. environment
82. A. encouraging
83. D. at
84. B. how
85. C. produce
86. A. growing
PART VI Translation
87. Medical researchers are painfully aware that there are many problems (that/which) they haven't found solution to (他们至今还没有答案)。
88. What most parents concern (大多数父母所关心的) is proving the best education possible for their children.
89. You'd better take a sweater with you in case it (should) turn cold.（以防天气变冷）
90. Through the project, many people have received training and decided to launch their own enterprose （决定自己创业）。
91. the anti-virus agent was not known until a doctor discovered it by chance.（直到一名医生偶然发现了它）。