US Fastest Growing Jobs: Caring for the Wealthy
America's extremely wealthy population is bigger than ever. And their money is supporting jobs for an increasing number of low-wage workers.
Also called "wealth workers," they cut, clean and color the nails of rich people's hands and feet. They rub and stretch rich people's bodies. They help rich people exercise and become stronger. But the workers who provide this manicuring, massaging and personal training often earn very low wages.
Mark Muro is a researcher at the Brookings Institution in Washington, DC. He explains that people with extra money are willing to pay other people to do services for them – whether it's teaching them yoga or walking their dogs. At the same time, Muro says, an increasing number of people "really need this sort of work."
But he notes that the country is losing middle-wage work – what Americans might call "traditionally more solid or dignified."
Personal care and services jobs are the fastest growing part of the job market for non-college-educated workers, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reports. They are expected to grow by 17% in the next 10 years.
The Brookings Institution adds that the number of manicurists and pedicurists doubled between 2010 and 2017. Exercise trainers and dog walkers increased at up to three times the rate of employment.
Muro says at least 3 million people in the United States currently do this type of service work for the rich. Wealth workers are more likely to be women and Latino. They often do not have a college degree. And they may work several jobs providing services to people who have more money.
"Our concern is not so much that the jobs exist, but that because of the way we structure work in America, they're not...good jobs. They really don't pay that well," Muro says.
These workers are among the easiest to use unfairly. They rarely have sick leave, vacation days or savings to support them when they stop working.
But the jobs do offer something for new immigrants. One-third of workers in the U.S. are in the so-called gig economy, about 10 percent of them full time. The rest are part time, picking up gigs — such as driving for Uber – to add money from another job.
"I think it's good for the economy because these are people who need those jobs and demand is the greatest (creator) of labor power for working people," says Louis Hyman. He is the director of the Institute for Workplace Studies at Cornell University. "The question is not how do we get rid of the gig economy, but how do we marry that with security? And it's not just a question for gig workers, but for all low-wage workers in America."
Hyman says one answer to the problem could be to set up a system of private accounts for each worker. Every time someone provides a service, a dollar goes into their health care account, and a dollar goes into their savings account. That way, says Hyman, workers have an easy way to build financial security.
Mark Muro is also concerned about the health of American society. Service jobs often show the difference between the wealthy and the poor. That difference "will produce a lot of dissatisfaction...among the bottom half," Muro says. He urges that work serving others be taken seriously and respected.
"Let's ensure these are dignified jobs," he says.
I'm Susan Shand.
Low-wage Vietnam and Bangladesh are among the countries gaining market share.
2.financial security 财政安全
I've been unemployed for two years and have absolutely no financial security.
3.college degree 大学学历
It's great if you have a job; it's even better if you have a college degree.
4.savings account 储蓄账户
You should have a savings account in this bank.
5.That difference "will produce a lot of dissatisfaction...among the bottom half," Muro says.
a lot of 大量的
I think a lot of people still underestimate him.
You've caused us a lot of trouble.
6.At the same time, the president was withholding $391 million in military aid to Ukraine.
At the same time 同时
Are these people using gear and amphetamines at the same time?
It's impossible to get everybody together at the same time.
美国极其富裕的人口多于以往任何时候 。他们的财富正在为越来越多的低收入工人提供就业机会 。
这一人群也被称为“财富工作者”，他们帮富人修剪、清理双手和双脚以及美甲 。他们帮富人按摩舒展身体 。他们还会帮助富人锻炼，强身健体 。但是提供美甲、按摩和个人培训的工人工资通常很低 。
马克·穆罗（Mark Muro）是华盛顿布鲁金斯学会的研究员 。他解释称，富人愿意花钱雇人获得服务，不管是瑜伽教学还是遛狗 。与此同时，穆罗表示，越来越多的人“真的需要这类工作” 。
美国劳工统计局的报告显示，个人护理和服务类岗位是非大专以上学历的劳动者就业市场中增长最快的部分 。在未来的10年里，这类岗位有望增长17% 。
布鲁金斯学会补充称，2010年至2017年，美甲师和足疗师的数量增加了一倍 。健身教练和遛狗人员的就业率增加了三倍 。
穆罗称，目前美国至少有300万人为富人提供这类服务 。为富人工作的可能多为女性和拉丁美洲人 。他们通常没有大学学位 。他们可能同时接多份工作，为那些更有钱的人提供服务 。
“我们担心的不是工作机会，而是由于我们在美国的工作结构，他们没有……良好的就业机会 。他们的工资确实不高 。”
这些工人是最容易受到不公平待遇的群体 。一旦停止工作，他们很少有病假、假期或存款来保障生活 。
但这些工作确实为新移民提供了一些帮助 。美国三分之一的劳动者处于所谓的零工经济中，其中约10%为全职人员 。其余的是兼职，打一些零工——比如为优步(Uber)开车——来增加额外收入 。
路易斯·海曼（Louis Hyman）称：“我认为这对经济有好处，因为这些人需要这些工作，而需求是劳动人民最伟大的劳动力创造者 。”他是康奈尔大学职场研究所的主任 。“问题不在于我们如何摆脱零工经济，而是如何将其与安全结合起来？这不仅是零工工人的问题，也是所有美国低薪工人的问题 。”
海曼表示，解决这一问题的办法之一是为每个工人建立一个私人帐户系统 。每次提供服务后，他们的医疗账户和储蓄账户会分别存入一美元 。海曼指出，这样一来，工人可以轻松建立财务安全 。
穆罗也关心美国社会的健康 。服务行业的工作往往会彰显出贫富差距 。穆罗说，这种差距“将引发中下层阶级的很多不满 。”他敦促人们认真对待和尊重为他人服务的工作 。