Climate Change Puts North Africa in a Hot Spot
Many areas of North Africa, including Tunisia and Algeria, have seen a sharp decrease in rainfall over the last 50 years. Some experts say the lack of rainfall will worsen in the future.
The German research organization, the Max Planck Institute, reports that parts of North Africa and the Middle East might become unlivable in the next 100 years.
Essia Guezzi is a climate and energy project officer for World Wildlife Fund North Africa, a conservation group. She told VOA, "We're seeing higher temperatures and increasing water stress [in the area]." She noted that rising sea levels also threaten people living near the coast.
World leaders will discuss these and other issues during next month's United Nations climate conference in Madrid, Spain.
Morocco has earned praise as a leader in fighting the effects of climate change. But experts say North Africa, as a whole, needs to do much more. Some countries are dealing with conflict and civil unrest. Others, such as Algeria and Libya, have economies that depend on oil.
Trying to turn the tide
In Tunisia, fresh groundwater supplies are decreasing quickly. About two-thirds of the land is threatened by a lack of rain and loss of trees. A report by the Netherlands Foreign Ministry from 2018 says that the effects of climate change may slow Tunisia's growth in its two main industries - tourism and agriculture.
Tunisian officials plan to cut the amount of carbon dioxide the country produces to 41 percent of levels measured in 2010 by the 2030s. Carbon dioxide gas is linked to warming of the Earth's atmosphere. However, critics say Tunisia has been slow to match words with action.
In one village, Samira Sghaier is trying to help change things, at least in her community. She and other area farmers began planting acacia trees to help reduce soil erosion. They also are planting moringa, a fast-growing plant valued for its nutritional and medicinal qualities.
The aim was to help fight climate change, while also earning money. The reality has not been so easy. She told VOA, "Everyone likes new products. The problem is selling them. It's hard to find a market."
Northern African countries try new measures
The African Union is leading an effort called the ‘Great Green Wall' initiative. The project aims to restore damaged land across areas south of the Sahara, commonly called the Sahel.
Gilles Boetsch is director of a French scientific team working with Senegalese researchers in the area. He said, "The goal is to replant trees, to return the Sahel to what it was about 60 years ago, when there was a lot more forest cover."
Boetsch added that many trees die and need to be replaced. And conflict in some Sahel countries makes some areas difficult to reach.
In North Africa, some national projects to fight climate change are making a difference. Tunisia will reportedly present an oases protection project at the Madrid climate conference.
Local farmers in northern Algeria are seeking help from Mexican experts to plant prickly pear cactus. The desert plant needs little rainfall, and provides nutrients and a way to make money. Algeria is also trying to renew efforts for a reforestation project that did not have good results.
I'm Jonathan Evans.
1.Climate Change 气候变化
We are all victims of climate change.
2.make money 赚钱
Like all businesses, we want to make money.
3.linked to 与...有关
The authorities insist that the discussions must not be linked to any other issue
4.aims to 旨在
The Home Secretary aims to break the vicious circle between disadvantage and crime
5.In North Africa, some national projects to fight climate change are making a difference.
making a difference 有影响
State and local initiatives also seem to be making a difference.
At that very moment, she was making a difference for that starfish.
6.But experts say North Africa, as a whole, needs to do much more.
as a whole 作为整体
As a whole we do not eat enough fibre in Britain.
We must consider these matters as a whole.
在过去的50年里，突尼斯和阿尔及利亚等很多北非国家的降雨量急剧下降 。一些专家表示，未来缺乏降水的情况将会恶化 。
埃西亚（Essia Guezzi）是保护组织世界自然基金会北非分会的气候和能源项目官员 。她告诉美国之音：“我们看到北非地区气温升高以及水资源的压力越来越大 。”她指出，不断上升的海平面也威胁着沿海地区的居民 。
摩洛哥因应对气候变化影响的领导作用而赢得赞誉 。但专家表示，北非作为一个整体，需要做的还有很多 。一些国家正在处理冲突和内乱 。阿尔及利亚和利比亚等其他国家的经济依赖石油 。
在突尼斯，新鲜的地下水供应正在迅速减少 。大约三分之二的土地受到缺乏降水和树木损失的威胁 。荷兰外交部2018年的一份报告称，气候变化的影响可能会减缓突尼斯两大主要产业——旅游业和农业的增长 。
突尼斯官员计划到本世纪30年代将该国的二氧化碳排放量削减至2010年水平的41% 。二氧化碳气体与地球大气变暖有关 。然而，批评人士说，突尼斯在言行一致方面行动迟缓 。
在某村庄，萨米拉（Samira Sghaier）正努力帮忙做一些改变，至少为所在社区做一些行动 。她和当地其他农民开始种植金合欢树，以减少水土流失 。他们还种植辣木——一种可迅速生长的植物，因其营养和药用价值而受到重视 。
其目的是帮助应对气候变化，同时也赚钱 。现实并非如此简单 。她对美国之音说：“每个人都喜欢新产品 。问题是如何销售它们 。很难找到市场 。”
非洲联盟正在领导个名为“绿色长城”的项目 。该项目旨在恢复撒哈拉以南地区（通常称为萨赫勒地区）被破坏土地 。
Gilles Boetsch是一个法国科学小组的负责人，该小组与塞内加尔的研究人员一起在该地区工作 。他说：“我们的目标是重新种植树木，让萨赫勒地区恢复到60年前的森林覆盖率 。”
Boetsch补充说，很多树都死了，需要更换 。一些萨赫勒地区的冲突导致一些地区难以实现该计划 。
在北非，一些国家应对气候变化的项目正在发挥作用 。据报道，突尼斯将在马德里气候会议上提出一项保护绿洲的项目 。
阿尔及利亚北部的当地农民正在寻求墨西哥专家的帮助来种植仙人掌 。这种沙漠植物几乎不需要降雨，却能提供养分和赚钱的途径 。阿尔及利亚还试图恢复一项没有取得良好成果的造林项目 。