Three Won Nobel Prize for Developing Lithium-ion Batteries
Three men who made rechargeable lithium-ion batteries possible have won the 2019 Nobel Prize for Chemistry.
One of the scientists is 97-year-old John Goodenough, who became the oldest winner of a Nobel prize. Goodenough is a professor at The University of Texas at Austin. He will share the award with Stanley Whittingham, a professor at the State University of New York at Binghamton, and Akira Yoshino of Japan. Yoshino is a professor with Meijo University and a fellow with the Asahi Kasei Corporation.
Sara Snogerup Linse is a member of the Nobel committee for chemistry. She said the three men "developed lightweight batteries...useful in many applications – truly portable electronics: mobile phones, pacemakers, but also long-distance electric cars."
The invention of the lithium-ion battery has had a deep influence on modern life. It has made listening to music, watching television and communicating on electric devices something that can be done almost anywhere.
Story of the lithium battery
Whittingham started his research into lithium batteries in the 1970s at a time when world oil prices were high and energy availability a big concern. He developed a battery that combined lithium and titanium disulfide. It could produce two volts of power, but it was too explosive to be useful. But the British-American researcher established that lithium ions could be held by a special material to create a lightweight battery.
Goodenough found that combining lithium with cobalt oxide could produce a more powerful battery, one that produced four volts. His research was an important step in the development of more powerful and safer batteries.
Using Goodenough's design as a starting point, Yoshino developed the first commercially available lithium-ion battery in 1985. Yoshino's design used a carbon-based material to hold lithium ions. That made the battery lightweight and able to be recharged many times.
The Nobel committee said that lithium-ion batteries "have laid the foundation of a wireless, fossil fuel-free society, and are of the greatest benefit to humankind."
Reaction to the announcement
Yoshino spoke on Japanese television after hearing that he and the other winners were being recognized for helping the environment.
"I am happy that (the) lithium-ion battery won the prize in that context," he said.
Yoshino and Goodenough have developed a close relationship over the years. Yoshino said that Goodenough is like a father and he goes to Texas every year to see him.
Gregory Offer is an expert in mechanical engineering at Imperial College London. He called the German-born Goodenough's work "one of the key enabling technologies of the 21st century."
The three scientists will share the prize worth $918,000. They will receive their gold medals and be honored at the Nobel ceremony in Sweden on December 10.
I'm Mario Ritter Jr.
1.modern life 现代生活
The pressures of modern life are great.
2.special material 特殊材料
This machine adopts the series of the press, the mould adopts the special material to be made.
3.mobile phones 手机
The Siemens mobile phones made in Shanghai are sold back to European countries.
4.electric cars 电动汽车
Hybrids, unlike pure electric cars, never need to be plugged in.
5.The invention of the lithium-ion battery has had a deep influence on modern life.
had a deep influence on 对...有深远影响
The Soviet model had a deep influence on china, but it's historic certainty to unthread the model.
6.Whittingham started his research into lithium batteries in the 1970s at a time when world oil prices were high and energy availability a big concern.
at a time 一次；每次
He was able to spend only a few days at a time on the island.
This restaurant can accommodate two hundred people at a time.
其中一位是97岁的科学家约翰·古迪纳夫，他成为了最年长的诺贝尔获得主 。古迪纳夫是德州大学奥斯汀分校的教授 。他将与纽约州立大学汉姆顿分校的教授斯坦利·惠廷厄姆，以及日本的吉野彰共同获得这一奖项 。吉野彰是名城大学教授，也是旭化成公司的职员 。
萨拉·斯诺格瑞普·林森是诺贝尔化学委员会成员 。她说，这三人“开发了在很多场合皆可应用的轻型电池，包括手机、心脏起搏器等便携式产品，也包括长途电动汽车 。”
锂电池的发明对现代生活产生了深远影响 。它使得人们在任何地方都可以使用电子设备听音乐、看电视以及交流 。
惠特汉姆于上世纪70年代开始研究锂电池，当时全球石油价格居高不下，能源供应备受关注 。他发明了一种结合锂和二硫化钛的电池 。这种电池可以产生两伏特的电力，但是很容易爆炸不能使用 。但是这位英裔美国研究人员证实，可以用一种特殊材料来保持锂离子来制造轻型电池 。
古迪纳夫发现，将锂与氧化钴结合可以制造出功率更强大的电池，这种电池可以产生4伏电压 。他的研究是开发出更强大、更安全电池的重要一步 。
以古迪纳夫的设计为出发点，吉野彰于1985年开发出了第一款商用锂电池 。吉野彰的设计使用了碳基材料来储存锂离子 。这使得电池重量更轻而且可以多次充电 。
吉野彰和古迪纳夫这些年来建立了密切的关系 。吉野彰表示，古迪纳夫就像父亲一样，他每年都会去德克萨斯州看望他 。
格力高利·欧福尔是伦敦帝国理工学院的机械工程专家 。他称，出生在德国的古迪纳夫的工作是“21世纪关键的使能技术之一 。”
这三位科学家将会共同获得91.8万美元的奖金 。他们将于12月10日在瑞典举行的诺贝尔颁奖典礼上接受表彰以及金质奖章 。