VOA慢速英语(翻译+字幕+讲解):常见的4种保存食物的方法
日期:2019-09-18 16:20

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Common Ways to Preserve Food

When you preserve food, you are taking action to stop it from breaking down, as it does naturally. You are killing or preventing the growth of microorganisms.

Today, we will explore how you can preserve some of the fresh produce you buy or grow. By following a few easy steps, you can still eat those tasty fruits and vegetables when they are out of season.

You can preserve late-summer fruits and vegetables in four basic ways. These include freezing, canning, pickling and drying or dehydrating.

Freezing

Freezing is the simplest way to save produce. It is important to freeze the produce as quickly as possible, and to do so in freeze-grade bags or other containers.

Eugenia Bone has written books about food and nature. She notes that you should cool down food before you freeze it.

One problem to avoid is freezer burn, which can affect the taste and feel of food. To prevent this, use plastic bags, wraps or containers designed for the freezer.

Good late-summer produce to freeze includes green beans, cabbage, apples and plums.

Canning

There are two main ways to can produce: boiling hot water baths and pressure canning.

A boiling water bath involves putting food in glass canning jars and then heating the jars in a pot of boiling water. The heat forces air from the glass jars and frees the food from bacteria and microorganisms.

You can then seal the jars.

This method works best with naturally acidic foods like fruits.

Pressure canning food requires a pressure canner. The pressure canner you use should be based on the kind of cooking equipment you have and the amount of food you plan to can.

Whichever method you use, always test the seal that keeps out fresh air.

Good late-summer fruits for water bath canning include apples, berries, cherries, figs and peaches.

Good foods for pressure canning include carrots, corn, okra and bell peppers.

Pickling

There are many methods of preserving food in vinegar, salt brine or a similar mixture.

You can pickle whole vegetables, like green beans or okra. Another possibility is to make chutney or relishes. This is done by adding salt, pepper or other seasonings to small, cut pieces of vegetables.

Good late-summer foods to pickle include cucumbers, hot chili peppers, watermelon rinds and eggplants.

Drying

A final way to preserve food is by drying it. Whatever food you are drying should be just ready to eat and not have bruises.

When drying, try to find specific directions for each food to ensure quality and safety.

Drying methods include air drying, oven drying and using a dehydrator.

A dehydrator is probably the best choice. If you think you will be drying foods regularly, think about investing in an electric dehydrator.

Good late-summer produce to dehydrate includes apples, mushrooms, grapes and hot and sweet peppers.

I'm John Russell.

And I'm Anne Ball.

重点解析

1.air drying 风干

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Three methods of dehydration: air drying, mechanical and vacuum dehydration.

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3种脱水方法为风干、机械脱水和抽真空脱水VD!.z0#]T5lP,YiIF

2.chili peppers 红辣椒

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The Mexicans also eat chocolate with spices like chili peppers.

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3.plastic bags 塑料袋

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Plastic bags full of rubbish have been piled in the street.

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4.fresh air 新鲜空气

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I'm dying for a breath of fresh air.

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我非常渴望能呼吸到新鲜空气,!+W(M6Oy+z1=%

5.Whichever method you use, always test the seal that keeps out fresh air.

keeps out 阻止...进入

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This double-glazing keeps in the heat and keeps out the noise.

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Peg down netting over the top to keep out leaves.

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6.It is important to freeze the produce as quickly as possible, and to do so in freeze-grade bags or other containers.

It is important to ...很重要

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It is important to know where to place the stresses.

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参考译文

常见的4种保存食物的方法

保存食物时,其实你是在设法防止食物分解,就像食物自然分解一样3aCW6UK~7[AN%]DIy。你正在杀死微生物或阻止其繁殖7_0QB;LGbt&c.H,uLh

今天,我们将探讨如何保存购买或种植的一些新鲜农产品#4L;]2[mP|s,xmgxYSA。通过以下几个简单步骤,你仍然可以在淡季吃到那些美味的水果和蔬菜ebqxa;8w3fdPn(+M#UN

你可以采取四种基本的方法来保存夏末的水果和蔬菜oayOkZf2U-;D。包括冷冻、罐装、酸洗、干燥或脱水FIa~PN10ysgVOl%i#

冷冻

冷冻是保存农产品最简单的方法vgxZK~oYNYXqkNW^-H@)。尽快将农产品冷冻起来十分重要,可以利用冷冻袋或者其他冷冻容器KYV41VUIX,q]121b

尤金妮亚·伯恩(Eugenia Bone)写过关于食物和自然的书籍1(uKq;0AI6kq3。她指出,你应该在冷冻食物之前将其冷藏起来_k(p0Jm.WWdeC#

需要避免的一个问题是冷冻灼伤,这会影响食物的味道和口感DQiiX5i!,3O5v8AXl*[!。为了防止这种情况,使用保鲜袋、包装袋或专为冰箱设计的容器]0kNoKGgv8]dyVM

常见的4种保存食物的方法.jpg

适合冷冻的夏末农产品包括青豆、卷心菜、苹果和李子[f_a|xL2;L4qkc~Gy

罐装

两大罐装农产品方法分别是:沸水浴和压力罐装vMmIIix@CS(&3fTrs&-

沸水浴包括将食物放入玻璃罐中,然后把玻璃罐放在沸水里加热Xt_&[22Nv7。热量会将玻璃罐中的空气挤压出来,使食物免受细菌和微生物的腐蚀ydVV#,h)e;lu

然后可以将罐子密封Y_Z=Cb.Pw;GY.A6WE

这种方法适用于保存水果这样的天然酸性食物BX)rNw)pM.E_v7hQ=YC

压力罐装食品需要一个压力罐he!J]f*ut*hWTgKI9r。压力罐应该视使用烹饪设备的种类以及装罐的食物量而定#;t-dw=hqR!neVQ

无论使用哪种方法,都要测试容器是否密封良好,以隔绝空气.UGYi]o=V4P03

适合做水浴罐头的夏末水果包括苹果、浆果、樱桃、无花果和桃子DMa]@;p];!8#L

适合压力罐装的食物包括胡萝卜、玉米、秋葵和甜椒pM(!p5BV6Tku.kibe

腌制

在醋、盐水或类似的混合物中保存食物的方法也有很多O[+^h3iy#kg%6

你可以腌制整颗蔬菜,如青豆或秋葵]5IcUWcNQ!@。另一种方法可能是制作成酸辣酱或开胃菜|FN4,BBO_W,sDI.。往切成小块的蔬菜中加入盐、胡椒粉或其他调味料来即可6SH=nnu~B]a4

适合腌制的夏末食物包括黄瓜、红辣椒、西瓜皮和茄子l+C6I@2b^Ng26

脱水

最后一种方法是脱水保存=o(,Ln]XjEH[gausyfk。不管你对什么食物进行脱水处理,都应该是即食且无损伤的+2Rg3,VIur+=NJ.c

进行这一步骤时,尽量为每一种食物找到特定的方法,以确保食物的质量和安全MHZ*d4Jpqyd=]]F

方法包括风干、烤箱烘干和使用脱水器MPT*FtWc6&*]~PZB

脱水器可能是最好的选择adzO0Yl[_rI&uEV~^A.。如果你觉得自己经常需要将食物脱水,可以考虑入手一件电动脱水器0y^O]Gfaz|de#

适合脱水的夏末农产品包括苹果、蘑菇、葡萄、辣椒以及甜椒x*7WCZd3.2[aDT7c@#p

约翰·罗塞尔为您播报=FZrOCb*QVfn,CnRR48

安妮·波尔为您播报%8S|RN^(p&pluBJ57oF

译文为可可英语翻译,未经授权请勿转载!

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