VOA慢速英语(翻译+字幕+讲解):亚马逊地区火灾的风险
日期:2019-09-01 21:08

(单词翻译:单击)

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What are the Risks of Fires in the Amazon?

The fires in many parts of Brazil's Amazon area have brought an internationaloutcry to save the world's largest rainforest.

Wealthynations have offered Brazil at least $22 million to fight the fires. ActorLeonardo DiCaprio also offered $5 million for efforts to save the forest.

Duringthe recent G-7 meeting in Biarritz, France, French President Emmanuel Macroncommented on the fires. He told leaders meeting there that the world cannotpermit Brazil to destroy what he called the "lungs of the planet."

What's in the Amazon?

TheWorld Wildlife Foundation (WWF) says the world'slargest rainforest contains millions of species of plants and animals. Many ofthem are still unknown. Among the best known animals are jaguars, eagles, pinkriver dolphins, parrots, large snakes and many butterflies.

TheWWF says the forests contain over 40,000 kinds of plants and the 6,500 kilometers of rivers contain 3,000 kinds of freshwater fish.

Thearea drained by the Amazon River covers 40 percent of South America. The forestextends over seven other countries and a French territory.

Morethan 30 million people, including 350 indigenous and ethnic groups, live in the Amazon area and depend on the forests for food and shelter.

Is the Amazon the lungs of the planet?

Therainforest is often called the "lungs of the planet." But that might not be the best way to describe the area's importance to the world's ecosystem.

CarlosNobre is a University of Sao Paulo climate scientist. He said a better way tothink about the Amazon's role is as a sink, taking heat-trappingcarbon dioxide, or CO2, from the atmosphere.

Currently,the world is releasing around 36 billion metric tons of CO2 into the atmosphereevery year. And the Amazon absorbs about five percent ofthe CO2 making it important in preventing climate change.

Will the Amazon produce less oxygen for the planet?

Whileit is often said that the Amazon produces 20 percent of the world's oxygen,climate scientists say that is not the case.

They say forests, including the Amazon, absorb about the same amount of oxygen asthey produce. Plants produce oxygen through a process called photosynthesis,but they also absorb it to grow, as do animals and microbes.

Scientistssay the world's oxygen supply is not directly at risk from the fires. However,that does not mean the fires are not a problem. The Amazon forest also absorbs other heat-trapping gases produced by burning fossil fuels, like oil and coal.

What do the fires mean for the world's climate?

The fires not only destroy parts of the carbon-absorbing forests, but they releasemillions of metric tons of carbon into the air.

The Amazon rainforest also is important to rainfall in the area. Deforestationmakes rains less frequent, extending the dry season.

CarlosNobre estimates that if 20 to 25 percent of the forest were destroyed, the dryseason would expand. That would mean the area would no longer be a rainforest,but a tropical savannah, or an area with grasslands and few trees.

Nobreadded, "Unfortunately, we are already seeing signs of the Amazon turninginto a savannah."

What is causing the fires?

The current fires in the Amazon are not wildfires. They are mostly set illegally by people who are clearing the forest to raise cattle and crops.

People clear the land by cutting down the trees during the rainy season, letting thetrees dry out and burning them during the dry season. Fully clearing the thick forest for agricultural use can take several years of cutting and burning.

NASA researcher Doug Morton said researchers could see piles oftrees months ago in satellite images. He said, "They're burning anenormous bonfire of Amazon logs that have been piled, dryingin the sun for several months."

Nobresays Brazil's policy has changed under President Jair Bolsonaro. The newpresident has limited the power of forest protection agencies saying they getin the way of developing land.

Nobreadded, "The number of fires increasing is because people think lawenforcement won't punish them."


重点解析

1.ethnic groups 民族

There are 56 ethnic groupsin China.

中国有56个民族。

2.turn into 成为,变为

People are turning intomachines nowadays.

现在,人们都成为了机器一样。

3.satellite image 卫星图

high-definition satellite image

高分辨率卫星图


参考译文

亚马逊地区火灾的风险

巴西亚马逊地区许多地方的火灾为拯救世界上最大的雨林引起了国际社会的强烈抗议.

为使巴西治理火灾,富裕国家向其提供了至少2200万美元,演员莱昂纳多·迪卡普里奥(Leonardo DiCaprio)也献出一份力捐出了500万美元。

在法国比亚里茨(Biarritz)举行的七国会议上,法国总统马克龙发表了关于火灾的评论。他对会议上的领导人讲:世界不允许巴西毁灭掉地球之肺

亚马逊里有什么?

世界野生动物基金会(WWF)表明,世界上最大的热带雨林有上百万中植物和动物,许多还尚为人知。其中最著名的动物有美洲豹、鹰、粉红河豚、鹦鹉、巨大的蛇和许多蝴蝶。

基金会表明,森林中包含超4万中植物,长6500米的河流中含有3000中淡水鱼。

亚马逊河排水的区域覆盖了南美洲的40%。森林延伸到其他七个国家和法国领土。

3000多万人(其中包括350个土著和族裔群体)在亚马逊地区居住,依靠着雨林提供食物和居所。

亚马逊是地球之肺吗?

此热带雨林通常被称为地球指肺,但这还不能够最准确地描述它对世界生态系统的重要性。

卡洛斯·诺布雷(Carlos Nobre)是圣保罗大学的气候科学家。他认为描述亚马逊更好的方法是将视为水槽,吸入大气中的二氧化碳。

最近,全球一共向大气中排放360亿公吨的二氧化碳。亚马逊森林吸入其中5%的二氧化碳,在全球气候变化中起到了重要作用。

亚马逊会为地球提供更少的氧气吗?

虽然人们常说亚马逊地区生产的氧气占全球总量的20%,但气候科学家认为并不是这样。

他们认为森林(包括亚马逊)能够吸收它们产生的氧气那么多。植物通过光合作用产生氧气,但它们也吸收氧气,动物和其他微生物也是一样。

科学家认为全球氧气供给并不直接受到火灾的威胁。然而,这并不意味着火灾不是个问题。亚马逊森林也吸收其他化石燃料产生的气体,像石油和煤。

这场大火对全球气候意味着什么?

这场大火不仅毁坏了吸收二氧化碳的森林,也排放了上百万公吨的二氧化碳。

亚马逊热带雨林对当地的降雨也很重要。砍伐森林减少了降雨的频率,延长了旱季。

卡洛斯·诺布雷(Carlos Nobre)估计,如果20%-25%的森林被破坏掉,旱季就会延长。这意味着此地不再是一个雨林,而是热带无树大草原,或者是一片有草地和很少的数的地区。

他补充到:不幸的是,我们已经看到这片雨林变为无树大草原的征兆了。

t012902585da54d46eb.jpg

是什么导致的这场大火?

这场火不是野火。很有可能是由当地人为饲养牛和种庄稼而非法清除森林导致的。

在雨季,人们砍伐树木来清理土地,让树木干涸从而在旱季燃烧。若完全清理这片茂密的森林用于农业,则需要花费几年的砍伐和燃烧。

美国国家航空航天局(NASA)研究员Doug Morton认为,研究人员应该能在几个月以前的卫星图中看到很多树木。他们正在燃烧巨大的亚马逊圆木,这些圆木已经经过几个月的晾晒。

诺布雷认为巴西的政策在总统迪卡普里奥(Leonardo DiCaprio)的领导下改变了。这位新总统限制了森林保护局的权利,认为他们阻碍了土地的发展。

诺布雷还认为:大火仍在蔓延,因为人们认为执法部门不会惩罚他们。


译文为可可英语翻译,未经授权请勿转载!


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重点单词
  • sinkn. 接收端,沟渠,污水槽,散热器 vi. 下沉,下落,
  • describevt. 描述,画(尤指几何图形),说成
  • containvt. 包含,容纳,克制,抑制 vi. 自制
  • tropicaladj. 热带的,炎热的,热带植物的
  • indigenousadj. 本地的,土生土长的,天生的
  • expandv. 增加,详述,扩展,使 ... 膨胀, vi. (谈
  • currentn. (水、气、电)流,趋势 adj. 流通的,现在的,
  • absorbvt. 吸纳,吸引 ... 的注意,吞并
  • sheltern. 庇护所,避难所,庇护 v. 庇护,保护,隐匿
  • protectionn. 保护,防卫