VOA常速(翻译+字幕+讲解):《日内瓦公约》70周年纪念
日期:2019-08-13 23:55

(单词翻译:单击)

SSI ļʱ
&+M7P-UAHs^Q~oSh

听力文本

And events marking the 70th anniversary of the 1949 Geneva Conventions are underway, the International Committee of the Red Cross says these four landmark treaties delineating the law of war are as relevant today as they were when they came into force August 12, 1949. Lisa Schlein reports for VOANEWS, from ICRC headquarters in GENEVA.
The 1949 Geneva Conventions grew out of the horrors of World War II. It took only four months for the four treaties, which are universally ratified, to come into force. The treaties contain the core elements of the International Humanitarian Law, the law of war, which aims to reduce suffering in armed conflict.
The law requires all parties to a conflict to abide by provisions that include a prohibition against torture, appropriate treatment of civilians, caring for the wounded on the battlefield, and the dignified treatment of the remains of the dead.

1.jpg
ICRC Director of International Law and Policy, Helen Durham, recognizes the law of war is not always followed, but she notes when they work, they have an impact. She said ICRC delegates in the field see these laws in action every day.
We see, for example, the capacity for us to get fresh water to six million Syrian. This is the law of war in action. We see every time a wounded combatant passes a checkpoint to get access to medical assistance, it is the laws or war in action, she said.
At the same time, Durham acknowledges the many challenges to the Conventions posed by new technologies. She said issues such as cyber warfare, artificial intelligence, autonomous weapons and the changing nature of conflict present new threats.
When the Conventions were crafted 70 years ago, she says international wars among belligerent states dominated. Now, most wars are internal, civil conflicts. She tells VOA as far back as the 1970s, a survey found a dramatic increase in civilian casualties as a consequence of this change.
In World War I, I think the statistics are one out of nine people killed was a civilian. In World War II, it was around 50-50. And, then when you looked at the Vietnam and other wars of decolonization, the statistics inversed where up to 90 percent of casualties during conflict were civilians… To date, that continues. So, civilians are very often the major casualties, she said.
Durham said an area of major concern for the ICRC is the treatment of detainees. She said clear rules governing the care of prisoners of war are laid out in the Conventions. However, these frequently are not enforced in the context of civil wars where non-state actors are involved.
She said this is one area where international law must evolve to make the laws of war more relevant to present day existing reality.
Lisa Schlein, for VOANEWS, GENEVA.

@a~&mG,+089*[

VOA译文由可可原创,未经许可请勿转载B6;B(=F-gL]j+snBT5K

[dnFqhR0BChv|BrZ

OkRBUXaUh[).V

||YUFQ|+Qiaq_B;2IqeQ

重点解析

^xR(jt5Z)[g8Iw^A.i]

1. The law requires all parties to a conflict to abide by provisions that include a prohibition against torture, appropriate treatment of civilians,

9xPUMD,EXWic

G*R7jffGkw7PF%7oBF

abide by 遵守

&va2SoN!pn5Stw

They have got to abide by the rules.
他们必须要遵守规定yeYV|_^Jl)+pBUU

LgaTs@GIdV*O*

.=(SKL[3PGVpu|b

2. And events marking the 70th anniversary of the 1949 Geneva Conventions are underway

sH]0ZS1Hu]~@L;^

9Utu&G[6LR@I*J.9M

underway 正在进行

1)f8OSt3yyosZ~=D_mGn

The project is already well underway.

gdfQp,insjJC6

项目已经顺利启动.dU@!G7~Vm|y

Ro8|@)W,43)MtQhq;0(p

8CEdZmpF,@3(#!Io

参考翻译
纪念1949年《日内瓦公约》70周年纪念的活动正在进行中c~b3@k|aJp]yae*%o。国际红十字会(ICRC)表示,这4个里程碑式的协议描绘了战争法!uPk9cuD])mP*。时至今日,《日内瓦公约》跟它1949年8月12日生效时一样具有相关性~uL|40vdPL~u]j.h6F9w。下面请听我台记者丽莎从日内瓦国际红十字会发回的VOA报道BqpFePYUDqf~5
1949年《日内瓦公约》是从二战的恐惧中形成的P[Y;lW9|-;|。只用了4个月时间,这4项如今得到普遍认可的协议就生效了]J-@Gg)2YW5NQ!。协议中包含国际人权法这个战争法的核心要素,该法旨在减少战争冲突中的苦难OiykUGc&]f
该法要求冲突各方遵守其中条款的规定,包括禁止虐待、合理对待平民、照顾因战受伤的士兵、以让人有尊严的方式对待他人的遗骨d;|4E.NY]7j1q=zhZ0
ICRC国际法律与政策负责人海伦表示,该战争法会有人违背,但她表示,该法生效的时候,是有影响力的T7PPxe[0NtDjo#]qXjSQ。她表示,ICRC在该领域的代表看到每天该法都在发挥作用D_4C-.|MU94CSzA%*+|+
比如,我们看到我们有能力获取新鲜水源并提供给600万叙利亚民众hg1%H=J+M&8N^Eh8。这是发挥了作用的战争法v[0eu0ajm03X。我们看到,每次有伤员经过关卡的时候,都能得到医疗援助,这说明该战争法发挥了作用,她补充说道S4Wyc^p~+F5Gk-6e
与此同时,海伦承认,新技术给《日内瓦公约》造成了很多挑战E[qD1OtE8yiho^QoJ!。他表示,这种挑战包括但不限于网络战、人工智能、自动化武器以及冲突不断改变的本质,它们都会造成新威胁shpZemHM6+GSH7n+ha
海伦表示,70年前,《日内瓦公约》起草的时候,好战国之间发生的国际战争占主导地位HuDH|x1zVihsX。而现在,大多数战争都是内战、内部冲突cp+J~PBG%VP)8.*q。她在接受我台采访时表示,早在上世纪70年代的时候,一项调查发现,平民死伤数量急剧上升,这都是这种改变的后果[vBCkQymyy
我认为一战的数据是每9个死亡的人中有1人是平民xHcyMTnf#964O^X26T。在二战中,这个比例是五五开AaGDrGx.r1qE1。当我们审视越南等殖民地自治化的战争时,数据是完全颠倒过来的——有9成冲突中的死伤者是平民……目前为止,这一数字还在增加NHKlF=aE]_zbXQa%d4。因此,平民是死伤人数最多的,她如是说道BbxFw3kV_nQcs|(p
海伦表示,ICRC特别担心的一个领域是被扣押者受到怎样对待的问题E,qj7,-;_akvCpo=m。她表示,《日内瓦公约》中明确列出了照顾战犯的规定v0lgzAeNekfVp82GPV。不过,这样的规定在内战中经常不会得到遵守,因为涉及到了非国家的参与方^dBJ=seY+qmahl.yb((
海伦说,这个领域是国际法必须演进的领域,要让战争法与当前存在的现实相关联c.318PP9X^&VFc~
感谢收听Lisa Schlein从日内瓦发回的报道[n&lf,+KzuP,+Wg

n3aV62S*KuB)G&Y7xCp~

译文为可可英语翻译,未经授权请勿转载!

ZkzTR,JWv=%ljBEE0.;j

0zDoQXaA#L[8Qy&TEJX4xwtMvSXo][_xn^i;jp|yu
分享到