Nobel Winner Toni Morrison Dies at 88
Toni Morrison, an American writer who received the Nobel Prize in Literature, has died at age 88.
Her novels, "Beloved," "Song of Solomon," and others explored the way African-Americans search for freedom and identity in a country obsessed with skin color.
Morrison's family released a statement saying she died in New York Monday night after a short sickness.
"Toni Morrison passed away peacefully last night surrounded by family and friends," the statement said. She loved the written word and "was most at home when writing," the statement also said.
Morrison was nearly 40 when she published her first novel "The Bluest Eye" in 1970. Within 25 years, she would win the Nobel Prize in Literature. The Nobel Prize committee described her writing as "language itself, a language she wants to liberate" from race.
Her novels discussed America's past, focusing on black history and the effects of slavery and racism on individuals. She called her characters "the unfree at the heart of the democratic experiment."
In 1988, she won the Pulitzer Prize for her novel "Beloved," the story of a mother who kills her baby daughter rather than permit her to be born into slavery. It became a best-seller and was later made into a film with Oprah Winfrey.
Many Americans admired her as the country's greatest living writer, including former President Barack Obama. During his administration, he awarded her the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the U.S.'s highest civilian honor.
She was born Chloe Ardelia Wofford in Lorain, Ohio, in 1931. Her father worked in a steel mill, and her mother was a maid. She attended Howard University, an all-black university in Washington, D.C. At Howard, she read African, British and American literature, including writers William Faulkner and Virginia Woolf.
"The writers who affect me the most were novelists who were writing in Africa: Chinua Achebe, "Things Fall Apart" was a major education for me, she told the Associated Press in 1998.
After a short marriage, she became a single mother of two sons and worked as a book editor in New York. Several publishers rejected her first book, "The Bluest Eye," but it impressed The New York Times' book critic John Leonard who believed Morrison was an important new voice. He said her writing was "so charged with pain and wonder that the novel becomes poetry."
Morrison enjoyed her literary fame and was proud of her Nobel Prize.
"Nobody was going to take that and make it into something else. I felt representational. I felt American. I felt Ohioan. I felt blacker than ever. I felt more woman than ever. I felt all of that and put all of that together and went out and had a good time," she said.
I'm Jill Robbins.
1.be proud of 为...自豪
He may well be proud of his success.
2.skin color 肤色
Experts say some people who change their skin color suffer emotional damage.
3.civilian honor 平民荣誉
U. S. Vice President Joe Biden has been awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom – America's highest civilian honor.
4.steel mill 钢厂
He is in charge of the operation of the steel mill.
5."Toni Morrison passed away peacefully last night surrounded by family and friends."
passed away 去世
With that the husband passed away.
She experienced pain in thinking of her husband who had passed away years ago.
她丈夫于几年前去世， 她经历了一段思念亡夫的悲痛过程 。
6.I felt all of that and put all of that together and went out and had a good time," she said.
had a good time 玩的开心
We had a good time. See you tomorrow.
我们度过了愉快的时间 。明天见 。
We both had a good time.
曾获得诺贝尔文学奖的美国作家托妮·莫里森（Toni Morrison）逝世，享年88岁 。
声明称：“托妮·莫里森昨晚在亲友的陪伴下安详辞世” 。声明还表示，她喜欢文字，并且在“写作时最自在” 。
1970年，将近40岁的莫里森出版了其首部小说《最蓝的眼睛》 。在25年内，她获得了诺贝尔文学奖 。诺贝尔奖委员会描述她的作品为“语言本身，一种她想要从种族中解放出来的语言” 。
她的小说探讨了美国的过去，聚焦黑人历史以及奴隶制和种族主义对个人的影响 。她称，她笔下的人物是“民主实验被束缚的核心人物” 。
1988年，她凭借小说《宠儿》(Beloved)获得普利策奖 。小说讲述的是一位母亲杀死了年幼的女儿，避免出生就成为奴隶 。它成了畅销书，后来被奥普拉·温弗瑞拍成电影 。
包括前总统奥巴马在内的许多美国人都钦佩她是美国在世的最伟大的作家 。奥巴马在任时，授予她最高的平民荣誉——美国总统自由勋章 。
1931年，她出生在俄亥俄州洛兰市，原名克洛伊·阿迪莉亚·沃福德 。她的父亲在一家钢厂工作，母亲是一名女佣 。她就读于霍华德大学，一所位于华盛顿特区的黑人大学 。在霍华德大学，她学习了非洲、英国和美国文学，包括作家威廉·福克纳和弗吉尼亚·伍尔夫（的作品） 。
1998年，她告诉美联社，“对我影响最大的作家是那些在非洲写作的小说家：奇努阿·阿切贝(Chinua Achebe)，《瓦解》让我受益匪浅 。”
在短暂的婚姻过后，她成为养育两个儿子的单身母亲，并在纽约担任图书编辑 。她的第一本书《最蓝的眼睛》遭到数家出版商的拒绝，但却给《纽约时报》书评家约翰·伦纳德(John Leonard)留下了深刻印象，伦纳德认为莫里森代表了一个重要的新声音 。他说，她的写作“充满了痛苦和惊奇，小说升华为诗歌 。”
“没有人会夺走或改变这些 。我觉得自己具有代表性 。我觉得自己是个美国人 。我觉得自己是俄亥俄州一员 。我觉得比以前更黑了 。我觉得自己比以前更像个女人了 。我感觉到了这一切，把所有的一切都放在一起，恣意享受生活，”她说 。