A new report lists the United States among the five most innovative economies in the world.
Switzerland was the top rated country on the list, known as the Global Innovation Index 2019. It is followed by Sweden, the U.S., the Netherlands and Britain.
United Nations officials released the findings. The index is a project of the U.N. World Intellectual Property Organization, the business school INSEAD, and Cornell University in New York.
The report notes, Innovation is blossoming around the world, although concerns about an economic slowdown and trade disputes continue.
Researchers used 80 economic measures to arrive at the final ratings. These included traditional measures like investment in research and development, as well as the number of international patents and trademarks sought. More modern measures include the number of mobile phone applications and high-technology exports produced.
The researchers considered different industries within each economy. The new report also has a special area on medical innovation. It describes artificial intelligence (AI), genomics and mobile health applications as areas that will change the way health care is provided for rich and developing nations.
The report studied the amount of money that businesses spend on research and development and compared it to government spending. It found that, in 2017, governments increased research and development spending by about 5 percent while businesses increased spending by 6.7 percent.
Never in history have so many scientists worldwide labored at solving the most pressing global challenges, the report said.
On the list of 129 economies, China appears in 14th place, moving up from 17th place a year ago.
The report praises China as a country in the group of leading innovative nations. The reasons, the report said, included China being a top producer of patents, industrial designs and trademarks. China also has many high-tech exports and creative goods exports, it added.
The United States rose from sixth place overall last year to third. The index rated the U.S. first for the openness of its markets and credit availability. It also ranked highly in patents and spending growth.
The report identified two issues that could slow growth in innovation in health care and other industries.
The first was slow spending in research and development by public organizations. The report said this was especially the case with high-income economies. It warned that because research and development drive technology, industries like health care could be affected.
The other issue was protectionism affecting the technology industry. The report said that efforts to place trade barriers hurting technology-intensive industries and limits to knowledge flows present risks to innovation around the world.
I'm Mario Ritter, Jr.
1.innovative adj. 创新的，有创造力的
innovative schemes for recycling waste materials
2.trade dispute 贸易纠纷
Europe is poised to extend anti-dumping duties on Chinese and Vietnamese footwear after Germany, Austria and Malta changed their positions in the keenly watched trade dispute.
瑞士位列榜首，这份榜单名为“2019年全球创新指数” 。位列其后的分别是瑞典、美国、荷兰、英国 。
联合国官员发布了这份报告 。全球创新指数是联合国世界知识产权组织、欧洲工商管理学院、纽约康乃尔大学的一个项目 。
科学家通过80种经济计量来评判最终的指数，包括传统的计量方式，如科研投资、国际专利和商标数量等 。还有更多现代的计量，如手机应用的数量、高科技出口的数量 。
科学家考虑了每个国家里不同的行业 。这份新报告还有一个特别的领域，是关于医疗创新的 。这个部分描述了人工智能（AI）、基因组学、移动健康应用，他们认为这些领域会改变富国和发展中国家提供卫生保健的方式 。
这份报告研究了商界投入在科研上的资金总量，并将其与政府投入进行了对比 。报告发现，2017年，许多国家的政府加大了科研的投入——花费近5%的资金在科研上，而商界投入的资金则上涨了6.7% 。
这份报告称赞中国是全球领先的富有创造力的国家 。报告指出，其原因是中国发布了许多专利、行业设计和商标 。此外，中国还有许多高科技出口和富有创造力的商品出口，报告补充写道 。
美国总体排名从去年的第6名升至第3名 。报告指数将美国的市场开放程度和可信度排在第一名 。此外，美国在专利增长和花销增长方面也排名靠前 。
第一个问题是社会团体在科研上投入太少 。报告指出，高收入国家尤其存在这样的问题 。报告警示称，由于科研会驱动科技，所以卫生保健等行业会受到影响 。
第二个问题是保护主义会影响科技行业 。报告指出，设置贸易壁垒的行为会损害科技密集型行业，而限制知识的流动会给全球的创新构成威胁 。
Mario Ritter, Jr为您播报 。