Trump’s Immigration Plan Values Skills, Education over Family Ties
American President Donald Trump has offered a proposal to reform the country's immigration system.
Trump says the proposal aims to create a, in his words, "fair, modern and lawful system of immigration for the United States."
He spoke at the White House on Thursday.
The plan would involve new actions to improve border security and a rethinking of the nation's Green Card system. Those changes are designed to help non-citizens with high-level education, skills and job offers instead of relatives of those already living in the United States.
A green card is required for all foreigners interested in becoming permanent residents of the United States. Trump's proposal would keep the number of non-citizens approved for green cards each year at around 1.1 million. But the plan is a major change from the current immigration system, which has been largely based on family connections.
Under the plan, 57% of green cards would be given to people with skills or offers of employment. Only 33% would go to individuals with family ties to individuals already living in the U.S. American immigration officials estimated that currently about 66% of all green cards are given to those with family ties, while only 12% are based on skills.
Before Trump's announcement, U.S. officials said the plan would create a visa system based on points, similar to systems used by Canada and other countries. Many more green cards would go to top college students so they can stay in the U.S. after completing their degree programs. There would also be more green cards given to professional workers and people with high-level degrees and occupational training. Officials would also consider a person's age, English language ability and employments offers.
The plan would reduce the numbers of visas the government sets aside for refugees. It also would end the government's diversity visa lottery program. Under that program, green cards are given to citizens of countries with historically low rates of immigration to the United States.
Challenges in Congress
Efforts to reform the U.S. immigration system have failed for almost 30 years. And Trump's proposal will face opposition from lawmakers, including members of his own Republican Party.
The Democratic Party wants a plan to deal with the millions of immigrants already living in the country without a visa. They include hundreds of thousands of young people brought to the U.S. illegally as children. And Republicans want to reduce overall rates of immigration.
Lisa Koop is director of legal services at the National Immigrant Justice Center. She criticized parts of the Trump proposal.
"A plan that forces families apart, limits access to asylum and other humanitarian relief, and doesn't contemplate a path to citizenship for DACA recipients and other undocumented community members is clearly a political stunt intended to posture rather than problem-solve," Koop said.
DACA is short for the term Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals. It is a policy that protects young people brought to the U.S. illegally as children from being sent back to their homeland.
Trump has worked to end the DACA program, and efforts to reach a compromise on DACA collapsed last year.
Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer said of Trump's latest proposal, "It's not going to happen."
Senator Lindsey Graham of South Carolina is a Republican and a close ally of Trump. Graham said of the plan, "I don't think it's designed to get Democratic support as much as it is to unify the Republican Party around border security, a negotiating position."
The plan, U.S. officials say, would increase inspection at ports of entry, build a border wall in some areas, and aim to reduce the number of people seeking asylum at the border.
Mark Krikorian is executive director of the Center for Immigration Studies, an organization that calls for lower immigration rates. He praised what he called a "very positive effort" on legal immigration, but said it was "undermined by the embrace of the current very high level of immigration."
I'm Caty Weaver.
1.aims to 旨在
The Home Secretary aims to break the vicious circle between disadvantage and crime.
2.as much as 差不多；
Experts reveal only as much as they care to.
3.border security 边界安全
Mr Hunt has stressed that maintaining border security is paramount.
4.deal with 处理；应付
He's a hard man to deal with.
5.The plan would reduce the numbers of visas the government sets aside for refugees.
sets aside 留出；驳回；撤销
You should set aside several days to think about your future plan.
She set aside some money for rent.
6.Trump has worked to end the DACA program, and efforts to reach a compromise on DACA collapsed last year.
reach a compromise 达成妥协
I think we'd better reach a compromise.
He was motivated by a desire to reach a compromise.
该计划将涉及提高边境安全的新行动，以及重新考虑美国的绿卡制度 。这些变动旨在帮助具备高等教育、技能和工作机会的非美国公民，而不是那些生活在美国的人的亲属 。
想要成为美国永久居民的外国人需要获得绿卡 。特朗普的提案将会把每年获得绿卡的非公民人数维持在110万左右，但是该计划与目前的移民制度相比是一项重大变革，目前的移民制度主要基于家庭关系 。
根据这项计划，57%的绿卡将发放给拥有技能或工作机会的移民 。美国移民官员估计，只有33%的绿卡会发放给那些与居住在美国的个人有家庭关系的人士 。目前66%的绿卡发放给了具有家庭关系的人士，基于技能发放的绿卡只有12% 。
在特朗普公布该提案之前，美国官员称，这项计划将建立一个基于积分的签证制度，类似于加拿大和其他国家采用的制度 。绿卡将会更多地提供给名牌大学生，以便他们完成学位课程后留在美国 。此外，还会为专业技术人员以及具备高等学位和职业培训的人士提供更多绿卡 。官员还会考虑个人的年龄、英语能力以及就业机会 。
该计划将会减少政府为难民提供的签证数量，还会取消政府的多元化“绿卡抽签”计划 。根据这项计划，绿卡将发放给移民率处于历史地位的国家的公民 。
近30年来，改革美国移民制度的努力一直以失败告终 。特朗普的提案将面临包括自家共和党成员在内的国会议员的反对 。
民主党希望提出一项计划处理数百万生活在美国的无证移民，其中包括数十万名幼时被非法带到美国的年轻人 。共和党希望降低移民的总体比例 。
丽莎·库普（Lisa Koop）是美国国家移民司法中心法律服务部的主任 。她批评了特朗普提案的部分内容 。
参议院少数党领袖查克·舒默（Chuck Schumer）提到特朗普最新提案时表示，“这不会实现 。”
南卡罗来纳州参议员林赛·格雷厄姆（Lindsey Graham）是共和党人，也是特朗普的亲密盟友 。格雷厄姆谈到该计划时表示：“我认为（该计划）不是为了获得民主党支持，而是为了把共和党团结在边界安全这一谈判立场上 。”
马克·克里科里安（Mark Krikorian）是美国移民研究中心的执行主任，该机构呼吁降低移民率 。他称赞了在合法移民人数问题上“非常积极的努力”，但是表示该努力“因目前接纳非常高比例移民人数受到了破坏 。”