Study: Military Spending Reaches Highest Levels Since 1988
Countries around the world are spending as much money on their militaries today as they did 30 years ago.
Researchers say military spending worldwide in 2018 was fueled by increased spending in the United States and China, the world's two largest economies.
The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) reported Monday that governments spent $1.82 trillion on troops and military equipment in 2018. That represents an increase of 2.6 percent on the total a year earlier.
SIPRI said the amount spent last year represents the most military spending since 1988. That was the year when spending information first became available as Cold War tensions began to ease.
The Cold War lasted over 30 years. On one side was the Soviet Union and its allies, largely in Eastern Europe. On the other was the United States and its allies, mostly in western countries.
Last year, U.S. military spending rose 4.6 percent to reach $649 billion.
The United States spent more than any other country on troops and military equipment. It was responsible for nearly 36 percent of total military spending worldwide. SIPRI noted that that amount is nearly equal to the combined spending of the next eight countries on the list.
China was the second biggest spender. It spent $250 billion in 2018, an increase of 5 percent compared to the year before. China has increased defense spending every year for the past 24 years.
Nan Tian works as a researcher with the SIPRI Arms and Military Expenditure program. He said, "In 2018, the USA and China accounted for half of the world's military spending."
SIPRI said last year marked the first increase in U.S. military spending since 2010. The group added that President Donald Trump's defense spending request to Congress this year is the largest ever before adjusting for inflation.
Trump has expressed support for strong national defenses, but promised to remove U.S. troops from conflict areas around the world.
After the United States and China, the other top spenders are Saudi Arabia, India, France, Russia, Britain, Germany, Japan and South Korea.
Saudi Arabia was the biggest spender per capita on defense, spending just a little more per person than the United States. Saudi Arabia is leading a military coalition against Houthi forces in Yemen.
NATO spending target
Trump has criticized some U.S. allies in Europe, especially Germany, for failing to meet NATO's spending target of 2 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The alliance has called members to spend at least that much on their militaries.
SIPRI said German military spending equaled 1.2 percent of its GDP last year. That number comes from GDP estimates for 2018 from the International Monetary Fund. Germany is Europe's largest economy.
Britain and France are the two largest economies in Europe after Germany. Britain spent 1.8 percent and France spent 2.3 percent of GDP on defense in 2018.
SIPRI added that military spending by all 29 NATO members was just more than 50 percent of the world's total.
It noted that Russia left the top five spenders' list after a decline of 3.5 percent in 2018. Russia has been involved in the Syrian conflict and it annexed Crimea from Ukraine in 2014.
Even with a desire to improve Russia's military, President Vladimir Putin has been forced to cut spending because of lower oil prices. Oil is Russia's main export. Putin has called on the government to increase spending on programs aimed at helping Russian citizens.
Russian military spending began to decrease for the first time in 20 years in 2017. SIPRI estimated Russia's spending fell 20 percent.
I'm Jonathan Evans.
1.a year earlier 前一年
The idea was rolled out at BMW dealerships in Europe a year earlier.
2.at least 至少
This jury is expected to be sequestered for at least two months.
3.aimed at 针对；旨在
The government rushed through legislation aimed at Mafia leaders.
4.military coalition 军师联盟
This is a time for the military coalition to come together, not to splinter.
5.Russian military spending began to decrease for the first time in 20 years in 2017.
for the first time 首次
The airport road is passable today for the first time in a week.
Naturally, you were keyed up when you went on the platform for the first time.
6.SIPRI noted that that amount is nearly equal to the combined spending of the next eight countries on the list.
be equal to 与...相等；胜任
The definition of postal contract should not be equal to the business scope of post office.
Though in the green, he may not be equal to the task.
斯德哥尔摩国际和平研究所表示，去年是1988年以来军费开支最高的一年 。当年，随着冷战紧张局势开始缓和，军费开支信息首次变得透明 。
冷战持续了30多年 。一方是苏联及其盟国，主要位于东欧 。另一方是美国及其盟国，大多数是西方国家 。
美国在军队和军备上的支出高于其它任何国家，占全球军费总额近36% 。斯德哥尔摩国际和平研究所指出，这一数字几乎是紧随其后的8个国家的开支总和 。
中国是第二大军费支出国 。2018年，中国军费支出为2500亿美元，较前一年增长了5% 。在过去24年里，中国国防开支每年都有所增长 。
田南(Nan Tian)是斯德哥尔摩国际和平研究所武器和军费开支项目的研究员 。他说：“2018年，中美两国占到了全球军费开支的一半 。”
斯德哥尔摩国际和平研究所表示，去年是美国自2010年以来首次增加军费支出 。该组织还称，若不考虑通货膨胀，特朗普今年向国会提交的国防开支要求是史上最高的 。
沙特是人均国防开支最多的国家，人均国防开支比美国略高一点 。沙特领导着也门反胡塞武装的军事联盟 。
特朗普对美国的一些欧洲盟友表示不满，尤其是德国，因为该国未能达到北约规定的占国内生产总值（GDP）2%的支出目标 。北约呼吁成员国在军事方面至少要投入同样多的资金 。
斯德哥尔摩国际和平研究所表示，德国去年的军费开支相当于该国国内生产总值的1.2% 。该数据来自于国际货币基金组织对2018年国内生产总值的评估 。德国是欧洲最大的经济体 。
英国和法国是欧洲仅次于德国的两个最大经济体 。2018年，英国和法国国防支出分别占GDP的1.8%和2.3% 。
该所指出，俄罗斯2018年的军费支出下降了3.5%，跌出最高开支榜单的前五名 。俄罗斯卷入了叙利亚冲突，并于2014年从乌克兰手中接管了克里米亚 。
即便俄罗斯总统普京希望增强俄罗斯的军事实力，但由于油价下跌，他被迫削减支出 。石油是俄罗斯主要的出口产品 。普京呼吁政府在帮助俄罗斯公民的项目方面加大支出 。
2017年，俄罗斯军费开支20年来首次出现下降 。斯德哥尔摩国际和平研究所估计俄罗斯的开支下降了20% 。