Report: US Set Twice as Many Heat Records as Cold in Last 20 Years
A new examination of temperatures in the United States shows that there were two times more heat records set in the past 20 years than cold ones.
The Associated Press analyzed temperature information collected by 424 weather stations across the country.
The analysis included temperature information from 1920 to 2008. It found that, most decades during the 20th century had close to an even ratio of hot to cold records.
But since 1999, 87 percent of the weather stations had more hot records than cold. And, 42 stations reported having at least five hot records for every cold one since 1999. At 11 stations, the hot-to-cold ratio during the period was 10-to-1 or greater.
One place with the greatest difference in hot and cold records was the Southern California city of Pasadena. It went 19 years between cold records, the analysis found. It set a low temperature record last month for the first since June 5, 1999.
Between those two record-cold days, Pasadena set 145 hot records. That included the city's all-time heat record of 45 degrees Celsius set last year.
The AP says it has shared its analysis with experienced climate and data scientists. Several experts say results of the examination support earlier scientific research. And, the information provides further evidence that human-caused climate change has led to higher temperatures over the years, the experts said.
The use of such data is very important to identifying the long-term effects of climate change, climate scientist Deke Arndt told the Associated Press. He is the head of climate observation for the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).
Arndt noted, for example, that the first two months of 2019 showed twice as many cold records than hot ones - the exact opposite of the results in AP's analysis. However, he said such short-term differences are not as valuable as true climate trends measured over many years.
Arndt said the AP analysis shows the United States has been in a steady period of major warming for a long time. He added that this trend is expected to continue "to explore and break the warm end of the spectrum much more than the cold end."
Former Weather Channel expert Guy Walton also gave his thoughts on the findings. Walton, who has been studying hot and cold extreme records since 2000, told the AP he thinks the results show an unmistakable trend. "You are getting more extremes. Your chances for getting more dangerous extremes are going up with time," he said.
Arndt noted that such temperature extremes could have many different effects on people's lives. These include financial effects such as increased hospital stays, higher energy usage and farm losses. A recent study involving 22 U.S. states found that each summer, about 36,000 people seek hospital treatment because of extreme heat.
I'm Bryan Lynn.
1.close to 接近
I was close to tears with frustration, but I held back.
2.extreme heat 高温天气；酷热
We are all debilitated by the extreme heat.
3.scientific research 科学研究
Our scientific research is second to none.
4.climate change 气候变化
Carbon emissions exacerbate the global climate change problem.
5.Arndt said the AP analysis shows the United States has been in a steady period of major warming for a long time.
for a long time 长期的
I've been wanting to taste it for a long time.
They have been missing for a long time now.
6.Arndt noted that such temperature extremes could have many different effects on people's lives.
have effects on 对...有影响
Anxiety disorders have effects on your health.
It is found that excellent movies have effects on many aspects of children's personality and social development.
这项分析包含了1920年到2008年的气温信息 。该分析发现，20世纪期间，大多数每个10年的高低温记录几乎都是持平的 。
但是从1999年以来，87%的气象站的高温记录多于低温记录 。此外，有42个气象站报告称，每出现一次低温记录至少会有五次高温记录 。有11个气象站在此期间的高低温比例达到了10：1甚至更高 。
南加州的帕萨迪纳市是高低温记录差异最大的地区之一 。该分析发现，该市两次创纪录低温之间相隔了19年 。上个月，该市创下了1999年的6月5日以来的首次低温记录 。
美联社声称，已将分析数据分享给经验丰富的气候与数据科学家 。几位专家表示，这次调查结果支持了早期的科学研究 。专家们表示，这些信息进一步证实，人为引起的气候变化导致了多年来的气温升高 。
气象学家德克·阿尔恩特（Deke Arndt）告诉美联社，使用这些数据对于确定气候变化的长期影响来说非常重要 。他是美国国家海洋和大气管理局气候观测方面的负责人 。
例如，阿尔恩特指出，2019年前两个月的低温记录是高温记录的两倍，这与美联社的分析结果正好相反 。不过，他表示这种短期差异不如多年来测量的真实气候趋势有价值 。
阿尔恩特表示，美联社的分析显示，美国长期以来一直处于明显变暖的稳定时期 。他补充说，这种趋势预计会继续“探索并打破温度范围的高温记录，且次数将远超低温记录 。”
前天气频道专家盖伊·沃尔顿（Guy Walton）也对该调查结果发表了见解 。自2000年以来一直研究极端高低温记录的沃尔顿告诉美联社，他认为这些结果显示出明显的趋势 。他说：“极端气温正变得日益频繁 。随着时间的推移，出现更多危险极端温度的可能性也在攀升 。”
阿尔恩特指出，这种极端温度可能会对人们的生活产生多种不同的影响 。其中包括财务方面的影响，例如住院时间增加，能源消耗增加以及农场损失 。最近一项涉及美国22个州的研究发现，每年夏季约有3.6万人因极端高温寻求住院治疗 。