Pakistan Releases Indian Pilot
Pakistan returned a captured Indian pilot to his country on Friday. Pakistani officials described the move as a "gesture of peace." The action temporarily reduced tensions between the two sides over the disputed Kashmir area.
The pilot, Abhinandan Varthaman, was seen walking across the border near the town of Wagah just before 1600 Universal Time (UTC). Indian officials then confirmed he had been returned.
His return to India came after a series of cross-border attacks in Kashmir this week.
On Tuesday, Indian aircraft entered Pakistan air space to attack what India described as a camp of the Islamist militant group Jaish-e-Mohammad. The group had claimed responsibility for a suicide bombing in Indian Kashmir on February 14. The explosion killed at least 40 paramilitary troops.
Both India and Pakistan claim they shot down enemy airplanes on Wednesday. Varthaman was captured when his plane crashed in a Pakistan-controlled area.
The two countries have fought three wars since gaining independence from Britain in 1947. Two of the wars were fought over Kashmir.
Located high in the Himalayan Mountains, Kashmir borders China to the northeast, India to the south and Pakistan to the west. The area is about 222,000 square kilometers in size. But its exact border has always been poorly defined.
Over the years, a series of rulers introduced Buddhist, Hindu, Muslim and Sikh cultures to Kashmir. When the British withdrew in 1947, Hari Singh, the Hindu ruler over Kashmir, delayed a decision to join Muslim Pakistan or Hindu-majority India. The move was part of an effort to remain independent.
As the majority Muslim population of Kashmir rebelled, Singh chose to join India. This led to the first Indo-Pakistani War of 1947.
A year later, the two nations agreed to a ceasefire. The agreement called for Pakistan to withdraw its troops and for India to keep a small military presence. It also called for a popular vote for Kashmiris to decide their future. But Pakistan did not pull back its troops and a vote was never held.
In 1962, China overpowered Indian forces to capture a small area along its border with Kashmir.
Heavy fighting between India and Pakistan broke out in 1965 and again in 1971. With Pakistan's defeat, the two nations signed an agreement to establish East Pakistan as the independent nation of Bangladesh.
The agreement also established a Line of Control, effectively dividing Kashmir into two areas. Tens of thousands of Indian and Pakistani soldiers have since faced off along the Line of Control and, at times, exchanged gunfire.
Behind the line, militants continue their attacks like the one that brought the two nuclear-powered countries closer to another war.
I'm Ashley Thompson.
1.faced off 和...对抗
As you can see from these pictures, protesters and security forces faced off against each other this past weekend.
2.broke out 爆发
The fighting broke out about two hours after sundown.
3.pull back 撤回；拉回
They were asked to pull back from their artillery positions around the city.
4.shot down 击落
The guerrillas shot down one aeroplane and captured the pilot.
5.His return to India came after a series of cross-border attacks in Kashmir this week.
a series of 一系列的
The students have put forward a series of questions.
A series of technical foul-ups delayed the launch of the new product.
6.Tens of thousands of Indian and Pakistani soldiers have since faced off along the Line of Control and, at times, exchanged gunfire.
Tens of thousands of 成千上万的
They somehow contrived to lose tens of thousands of applications.
Insects are made up of tens of thousands of proteins.
周五，巴基斯坦将一名被俘印度飞行员释放回国 。巴基斯坦官员称此举是“和平姿态 。”这一行动也暂缓了双方就有争议的克什米尔地区的紧张态势 。
飞行员阿比纳丹·瓦塔曼（Abhinandan Varthaman）于世界时间16：00在众人的见证下步行穿过瓦格赫附近的边境 。印度官员随后证实他已回国 。
周二，印度战机进入巴基斯坦领空袭击其声称的伊斯兰教激进组织（Jaish-e-Mohammad）的营地 。该组织宣称对2月14日印属克什米尔地区发生的自杀式爆炸袭击负责 。爆炸造成至少40名准军事人员丧生 。
印度和巴基斯坦都宣称，周三击落了对方的战机 。瓦塔曼在飞机坠毁在巴基斯坦控制区后被俘 。
克什米尔地区位于喜马拉雅山脉的高处，东北与中国接壤，南接印度，西连巴基斯坦 。该地区面积约为22.2万平方公里，但是一直没有划分明确的边界线 。
多年来，一系列统治者将佛教、印度教、穆斯林以及锡克教文化引进克什米尔地区 。当英国1947年撤离时，克什米尔地区的印度教统治者哈里·辛格（Hari Singh）决定推迟加入信奉穆斯林的巴基斯坦或以印度教徒为主体的印度 。此举是该地区保持独立的措施之一 。
由于克什米尔地区占多数的穆斯林人口叛变，辛格选择加入印度 。这导致了1947年第一次印巴战争 。
一年后，两国同意停火 。停战协议要求巴基斯坦撤军，而印度只准保留少量的军事力量 。协议还呼吁克什米尔人举行公投以决定自己的未来 。但是巴基斯坦没有撤军，公投也从未举行 。
1965年和1971年，印度与巴基斯坦再次爆发了激烈的战争 。随着巴基斯坦战败，两国签署了一项协议，将东巴基斯坦建立为独立的孟加拉国 。
该协议还设定了实际控制线，将克什米尔有效地划分为两个地区 。此后，成千上万的印巴士兵沿着控制线对峙，双方不时发生交火 。