Martin Luther King, Jr. Popularized Peaceful Protest in US
Civil rights movement hero, Martin Luther King, Jr. is honored with a holiday on the third Monday in January. He would have been 90 years old this month but was murdered in 1968 at the age of 39.
King led a movement of non-violent, peaceful protests to fight racial injustice in the United States. The first example of this movement began in December of 1955. It was the Montgomery Bus Boycott in the southern state of Alabama.
Many southern cities, including Montgomery practiced racial segregation, or the separation of black and white Americans in public places. When using public transportation such as buses, the law in Montgomery stated that blacks must enter from the back door and the first ten rows of seats were for whites only. On December first in 1955, a black woman, Rosa Parks, was riding a bus on her way home from work. She refused to give her seat to a white man and was arrested.
At the time, King was a 26-year-old clergy man at the Dexter Avenue Baptist church in Montgomery.
In an interview with the British Broadcasting Corporation in 1961, he explained what happened next.
"More than 99% of the Negro people of Montgomery rose up with a.... righteous indignation, I would say. And this led to the bus boycott.... They asked me serve as a spokesman....and from this time, I found myself in a leadership position in the civil rights struggle."
In Montgomery, King and others organized a one-day boycott of city buses on December 5. Three days later, under the leadership of King and others, a list of demands was presented to city officials. The demands included fair seating for all and courteous treatment by bus operators.
The demands were not met. City officials and white opponents tried to defeat the boycott. Blacks organized and helped one another to meet transportation needs. Many blacks walked or rode bikes to where they needed to go. King's home was bombed in early 1956 -- he and his family were not hurt. That same year, King was arrested and found guilty of interfering with a business. Blacks in Montgomery stayed off city buses through 1956.
More than a year after the boycott began -- on the 20th of December in 1956 -- the Supreme Court agreed with a lower court decision that public bus segregation is not legal.
I'm Dorothy Gundy.
1.public transportation 公共交通
Campuses are usually accessible by public transportation.
2.the Supreme Court 最高法院
He clerked for the chief justice of the Supreme Court.
3.found guilty 被判有罪
They were found guilty of murder
4.rose up 上升；起义
The balloon rose up slowly into the air.
5.At the time, King was a 26-year-old clergy man at the Dexter Avenue Baptist church in Montgomery.
At the time 当时
I was out of work at the time.
I was not in Britain at the time.
6.Blacks in Montgomery stayed off city buses through 1956.
stayed off 远离
He was taken ill this morning so he stayed off work.
I stayed off work, as I didn't want to pass my cold on to the students.
每年1月的第三个星期一是民权运动英雄——马丁·路德·金的纪念日 。本月本该是他的90岁诞辰，但在1968年，39岁的他被谋杀 。
马丁·路德·金领导了一场非暴力、和平的抗议运动，反对美国的种族歧视 。第一次抗议运动始于1955年12月 。那就是发生在阿拉巴马州南部的蒙哥马利巴士抵制运动 。
包括蒙哥马利在内的许多南方城市实行种族隔离，即在公共场所将美国黑人和白人隔离开来 。蒙哥马利的法律规定，当乘坐巴士等公共交通工具时，黑人必须从后门上车，前10排座位只限白人使用 。1955年12月1日，黑人妇女罗莎·帕克斯（Rosa Parks）下班后乘坐公交车回家 。她因拒绝给白人让座而被捕 。
我想说的是，蒙哥马利超过99%的黑人义愤填膺地站起来 。这导致了巴士抵制运动…他们推举我当发言人 。从那时起，我发现自己在民权斗争中处于领导地位 。
12月5日，马丁·路德·金和其他一些活动家在蒙哥马利组织了一场为期一天的“城市巴士抵制”活动 。三天后，在他和其他人的领导下，市政府官员收到了一份“要求清单” 。这些要求包括对所有座位“一视同仁”，以及巴士司机的“以礼相待” 。
但是这些要求没有获得批复 。市政府官员和白人反对者试图挫败这起抵制活动 。黑人团结起来互相帮助以解决交通的需求 。许多黑人步行或骑自行车出行 。1956年初，马丁·路德·金的家被炸毁，所幸他和他的家人没有受伤 。同年，马丁·路德·金被捕，并以妨碍商业罪被判刑 。蒙哥马利的黑人直到1956年都没有乘坐公交车 。