VOA慢速英语(翻译+字幕+讲解):多数美国人支持利用基因编辑治疗疾病
日期:2019-01-11 16:37

(单词翻译:单击)

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听力文本

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Study: Americans Approve of Gene Editing Only for Health Purposes
A public opinion study says that most Americans would accept the use of gene-editing technology to create babies who are protected from some diseases.
But the same study finds that Americans do not support changing the genetic structure, or DNA, of children so that they are faster, taller or more intelligent.
The research was carried out by the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research.
It comes after a Chinese scientist claimed in November to have created the world's first gene-edited human babies. The opinion study suggests that many people are concerned about what gene-editing means for the future.
More than 1,000 people were questioned in the study. The researchers said Americans value the medical promise of technology that could change the genetic qualities human parents pass on to their children. But they worry whether it will be used in a moral way.
Jaron Keener works at the Carnegie Museum of Natural History in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The 31-year-old told the Associated Press that he opposes "rich people being able to create designer babies."
However, Keener said he would support gene editing in embryos to prevent diseases that have no cure. He said that his mother has lupus, a disease that may have both environmental and genetic causes.
"I've been around somebody with a chronic illness and I've seen the toll that has taken, not just on her life, but the life of my family," he said.
Gene editing takes out a part of DNA to remove, replace or repair a gene.
Changes to adult cells only affect the person being treated. But editing genes in eggs, sperm or embryos can change the resulting child in ways that can be passed to future generations.
Because of its important effects, international science guidelines say gene-editing should not yet be tested in human pregnancies. Scientists say more laboratory research is needed to prove whether or not it is safe.
The AP-NORC study suggests that 71 percent of Americans approve of using gene editing to prevent deadly diseases, such as cystic fibrosis and Huntington's disease.
The study found that 65 percent of Americans would approve of using gene editing to prevent conditions such as blindness. There also was support for using the technology to reduce the risk of diseases that might develop later in life, such as cancer.
However, 66 percent of Americans oppose using gene editing to change qualities such as intelligence or athletic ability. They also oppose changing physical qualities such as eye color or height, the study found.
Dr. Robert Klitzman studies biological research rules. He noted that, if fertility clinics start to edit the genes of embryos, there will be hard choices to make about what conditions can be changed.
What if scientists could identify genes involved with depression or autism or high body weight? Would they be acceptable to edit? "It's one thing to look at the extremes of fatal diseases versus cosmetic things, but in the middle are going to be these very different issues," Klitzman said.
More Americans oppose than approve of government support for testing gene-editing technology on human embryos. About 25 percent of them have no opinion.
Jaron Keener, the Pittsburgh museum worker, said that he opposes the research because he fears it would not be used only to fight disease.
"I just don't have a lot of confidence people wouldn't use it for their own gain," he said.
The study suggests a lack of trust in the technology. About one-third of Americans think gene editing will be used before it is fully tested. Many scientists believe this has already happened in China.
Nearly 90 percent of the people in the study thought that the technology will be used for the wrong reasons.
I'm Pete Musto.

重点解析

1.public opinion 民意调查

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He mobilized public opinion all over the world against hydrogen-bomb tests.
他动员全世界的舆论反对氢弹试验6@I=4rUtw7emUil_a

2.a lack of 缺乏

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There is a lack of confidence in the government's ability to manage the economy.
人民对该政府管理经济的能力缺乏信心^!2XNuao+4

3.approve of 支持

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Her parents did not approve of her decision.
父母不赞成她的决定KC~AJZ]!eK-

4.future generations 后代

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Future generations are going to think that we were a pretty boring lot.
未来几代人会觉得我们无趣乏味得很WmY-)cUK;Kfb1r&p

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5.The research was carried out by the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research.

carried out 实施

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Two independent studies have been carried out.
两项彼此独立的研究已在进行中|@lz3G|dX@a
Forensic experts carried out a painstaking search of the debris.
法医专家对残骸进行了极其仔细的搜索zKVFCdI#f50-6T8Sk_sq

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6.Gene editing takes out a part of DNA to remove, replace or repair a gene.

takes out 拿出;取出

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You filter the coffee through this special paper and it takes out the bitterness.
如果你用这种特制的纸过滤咖啡,就没有苦味了7JpeVWI+z&Rk
He takes out your knees and ruins your life and anybody you know.
他会要了你的命,毁了你的生活,大家都知道这点6F&LP*90WwjWVJ2~

参考译文

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多数美国人支持利用基因编辑治疗疾病
一项民意调查显示,大多数美国人能接受使用基因编辑技术“定制”免受某种疾病侵害的婴儿[)aWp%%DQX,~,y=!&tpE
而这项调查还发现,美国人不支持改变儿童的遗传结构(DNA),让他们变得更敏捷、更高大或者更聪明.~=%+6]6YsP-Wv
这项研究由美联社和全国民意调查中心公共事务研究所开展7n8TAw&=7ZNGL_=M
去年11月,中国科学家声称“造出”了全球首例基因编辑人类婴儿xR5V&!#8+xlON。该民调表明,很多人担心基因编辑对未来的影响j!pQu.cSKNBbS+mw
1000多人接受了这项调查的问访clj|MPdT9CBO8pY。研究人员表示,美国人很看重这项科技带来的医疗前景,它可能会改变父母遗传给子女的遗传特质02lpp6B.!a;k3d@4~_Z。但是,他们也担心这项科技的应用能否合乎道德伦理6*(|6W#3LCeU
贾隆·基纳(Jaron Keener)在宾夕法尼亚州匹兹堡市的卡内基自然历史博物馆任职;N(FbBVs#n-ad。31岁的他告诉美联社,他反对“富人能造出经过设计的婴儿6V8g2V=YhEtHGnPC。”

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多数美国人支持利用基因编辑治疗疾病.jpg
然而,基纳表示,他支持编辑胚胎基因来预防那些无法治愈的疾病e948UnfuL]66B。他说,他的母亲患有红斑狼疮——该疾病可能同时有环境和遗传两个诱因HS.|vmbn|eyIDXElDw
他说:“身边生活着一位慢病患者,我亲眼目睹了这一疾病对母亲的生活以及整个家庭幸福带来的严重后果@@V.qC%nk4OoCN7f7(F4。”
基因编辑是从DNA中取出一部分来移除、替换或修复某个基因1~z%q,EYuUH
成人的细胞变化只会影响患者本人,而编辑精子、卵子或是胚胎的基因会改变新生儿,这种改变可以传递给后代@3M|v,#8@l;E9Uww.[
由于它的重大影响,国际科学指南称,基因编辑不应在人类孕育期间进行测试RL1O8ClNqKe。科学家们指出,需要进行更多实验室研究来证实它的安全性h@9W%q3.7Lm#
美联社和全国民意调查中心进行的这项调查显示,71%的美国人赞成使用基因编辑技术预防致命疾病,例如囊肿性纤维化或亨廷顿氏舞蹈症M3jp-l3+W9N
该研究发现,65%的美国人赞成使用基因编辑技术来预防失明等疾病,还有人支持利用这项技术降低晚年可能患上的疾病风险,如癌症0ffg~,=WqMMz+hlkHP
然而调查发现,66%的美国人反对使用基因编辑技术改变智力或运动体能等身体素质,他们还反对改变瞳孔颜色或身高等身体特质B-#)LLaN-Vz
罗伯特·克利兹曼博士(Dr. Robert Klitzman)研究生物学研究规则Dm6PB;u9jU^Eka.I。他指出,如果生育诊所开始编辑胚胎的基因,将会很难抉择可以改变的状况G=DKl(,vPR
如果科学家能够确定与抑郁症、自闭症或肥胖相关的基因,那编辑这些基因是不是可以接受呢?克利兹曼博士表示:“这涉及到如何看待致命性疾病与美容性问题这两个极端,但是中间会出现完全不同的问题LaEiHV^s7A@Se,!W。”
更多的美国人反对批准政府允许对人类胚胎基因编辑技术进行测试,25%的美国人对此不发表意见d|oxgDdu;h#rKP^R
匹兹堡博物馆员工基纳表示,他反对这项研究,因为他担心该技术不仅会被用于对抗疾病,~x=6#;Z%0p67N~G(GG
他说:“要相信人们不会为了自身利益而滥用这项技术不太可能eUY~36xRHb。”
这项研究表明,人们对这项技术缺乏信任;W;0r5B=WfB(O5F(,NX。大约三分之一的美国人认为,基因编辑会在完全测试前应用gOIyPP62=E。很多科学家认为,中国已经出现了先例#|Ta1,U&UC%ly3
近90%的受访者认为,这项技术会被用于错误原因&;Nl;gY3m7#EO;jn
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译文为可可英语翻译,未经授权请勿转载!

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重点单词
  • identifyvt. 识别,认明,鉴定 vi. 认同,感同身受
  • certainadj. 确定的,必然的,特定的 pron. 某几个,某
  • terrorn. 恐怖,惊骇,令人惧怕或讨厌的人或事物
  • confidenceadj. 骗得信任的 n. 信任,信心,把握
  • preventv. 预防,防止
  • removev. 消除,除去,脱掉,搬迁 n. 去除,间距
  • acceptableadj. 合意的,受欢迎的,可接受的
  • affectvt. 影响,作用,感动
  • fataladj. 致命的,毁灭性的,决定性的
  • designern. 设计者